The Conditional Cash Transfer Program for Poverty Alleviation in the Philippines: A Policy Evaluation
Poverty is a worldwide problem that occurs also here in the Philippines. People living in extreme poverty face challenges and difficulty because they cannot afford to buy their basic and survival needs for their families. In response, the Philippine government implemented a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program which provides cash assistance to indigent families nationwide both in urban and rural areas, dubbed in the Filipino language as the “pantawid pamilyang Pilipino program” (4Ps), In this paper, the term CCT is used to refer in particular to the 4Ps itself which aims to reduce poverty and improve access to education and health care of the poorest of the poor families by providing them cash grants for their basic educational and health care needs. This paper critically evaluated the policy implementation of the CCT program on it uplifted the poverty conditions of the beneficiary families. The paper examined the strengths and weaknesses of the program implementation in view of elevating the quality of lives of the recipients thereby exit from poverty. Findings revealed that the CCT program in large part, has become very instrumental in uplifting the standard of living and improve the quality of life among its beneficiaries. The cash grants primarily facilitated access to education and health care services of the children. However, recipient families often spend the received grants on home consumption rather than for the educational and health care need of the schooling-age children, indicative of weak understanding on the financial literacy and management aspects among program beneficiaries. Finally, there is a need for the beneficiaries to be trained on how to responsibly spend cash subsidies by spending them wisely as allocated.
Abocejo, F. T., Pañares, Z. A., Dotillos, L. T., Diones, L.L., & Belciña, S. A. (2012). Microfinance program on cooperatives: Realities, benefits and women’s participation. CNU Journal of Higher Education. Special Issue on Poverty Alleviation. 6(1), 25-39. Retrieved from http://jhe.cnu.edu.ph/index.php/cnujhe/article/view/119
Ancho, I. V., Calimbahin, G. A. M., Rivera, J., & Tina, J. C. (2020). Education and the nation state: An analysis of Philippine presidential speeches. Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan, 11(1), 63-78. https://doi.org/10.18196/jgp.111112
Arriagada, A. M., Perry, J., Rawlings, L. B., Trias, J., & Zumaeta, M. (2018). Promoting early childhood development through combining cash transfers and parenting programs. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (8670). Retrieved November 10, 2021 from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/489331538646764960/PromotingEarlyChildhood-Development-through-Combining-Cash-Transfer-and-ParentingPrograms.
Balacuit, Jr. C. (2018). Contributing factors in basic education through 4Ps (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program) implementation. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 10(2), 79-86. Retrieved November 17, 2021 from https//ijhss.net/index.php/ ijhss/article/download/445/139.
Basas III, G. O. (2021). The Socio-economic conditions of the household-beneficiaries of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied and Basic Subjects, 1(6), 52-73. Retrieved from https://visnav.in/ijabs/wpcontent/uploads/sites/11/2021/12/The-Socio-economic-conditions-of-the-HouseholdBeneficiaries-of-Pantawid-Pamilyang-Pilipino-Program-4Ps-1.pdf
Braganza, C., Goozee, H., & Peres, A. (2018). The healthcare and education impacts of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Programme. Retrieved November 19, 2021 from https://bit.ly/2RQKXuD
Cabuquin, J. C. (2022). Examining Multiple Intelligences and Performance of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Students in the Specialized Subjects. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(5), 55-60. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejedu.2022.3.5.426
Catubig, M. C. L., Villano, R. A., & Dollery, B. (2017). The administrative efficiency of conditional cash transfer programmes: Evidence from the PantawidPamilyang Pilipino Program. Asia-Pacific Development Journal, 23(1), 133-158. Retrieved from https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Chapter%206.pdf
Crossman, A. (2017). Understanding poverty and its various types. Retrieved December 5, 2021 from https://www.thoughtco.com/poverty-3026458
Cruz, R. C., de Moura, L. B., & Neto, J. J. (2017). Conditional cash transfers and the creation of equal opportunities of health for children in low and middle-income countries: A literature review. Retrieved November 13, 2021 from https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-017-0647-2
Dulliyao R. (2019). The implementation of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) and its socioeconomic impact to the living standards of the beneficiaries in Tabuk City. International Journal of Advanced Research, 7(7), 291-303
DSWD,(2018).Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program Implementation Status Report:2nd Quarter of 2018.
DSWD. (2019). Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program implementation and status report, fourth quarter 2019. Retrieved December 6, 2021 from https://pantawid.dswd.gov.ph/ home2/data-updates/ pdf
DSWD. (2020). Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program implementation and status report, second quarter of 2020. Retrieved December 6, 2021 from https://pantawid.dswd.gov.ph/ wpcontent/uploads/2020/09/2nd-Quarterly-Report-2020.pdf
Fernandez, R. C. C., & Abocejo, F. T. (2014). Child labor, poverty and school attendance: Evidences from the Philippines by region. CNU Journal of Higher Education. 8(1), 114-127. Retrieved from http://www.jhe.cnu.edu.ph/index.php/cnujhe/article/view/151
Flores, M. J. S., Espinoza, C.A. B., Enrico, H. C., & Casimiro, R. R. (2019). Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Its effect on the academic performance of student-beneficiaries in Calaba National High School in the Philippines. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 9(2), 193-208. https://doi.oirg/10.5296/ jpag. v9i2.14762.
Garoma, D. A., Abraha, Y. G., Gebrie, S. A., Deribe, F. M., Tefera, M. H., & Morankar, S. (2017). Impact of conditional cash transfers on child nutritional outcomes among sub-Saharan
African countries: A systematic review protocol. Wolters Kluwer. Retrieved November 19, 2021 from https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=28902696
Hamilton, D., Anderson, K., Barnes, R., Dunaiski, M., & Anderson, S. (2018). Situation Analysis of Children in the Philippines. Retrieved December 6, 2021 from https://uni.cf/2SeB6xI
Manguiat, T. S., Dy, M. F. R., Ferido, M. P., & Baconguis, R. D. (2021). Perceived effect of the FDS seminars on familial relationship among Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4PS) beneficiaries in Bay, Laguna, Philippines. UP Los Baños Journal. Journal Article 13926. Retrieved from https://www.ukdr.uplb.edu.ph/journal-articles/3926
Mbuya, N. V., Demombynes,G.,Piza, S. F. A.,& Adona,A. J. V.(2021). Undernutrition in the Philippines: Scale, Scope, and Opportunities for Nutrition Policy and Programming. World Bank Publications.
Mhiliwa, J. A. (2015). The effects of school distance on students’ academic performance: A case of community secondary schools in Makambako Town Council (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University of Tanzania). Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/ 44684741.pdf
Millán, T. M., Barham, T., Macours, K., Maluccio, J. A., & Stampini, M. (2019). Long-term impacts of conditional cash transfers: Review of the evidence. The World Bank Research Observer, 34(1), 119-159. https://doi.org/10.1093/wbro/lky005.
Mingoa, J. I., & Abocejo, F. T. (2021). Science performance and scholastic aptitude of grade 9 learners. European Journal of Education Studies, 8(3), 342-358 http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v8i3.3660
Once, F.P. Gabon, V.A., Dela Cruz, J.P., Gabon, R.D., & Mustacisa-Lacaba,M. (2019). Financial literacy and satisfaction of beneficiaries to Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): Evidence from the poorest countryside areas of the Philippines. The Countryside Development Research Journal, 7(1), 11-16. Retrieved November 15, 2021 from https://cdj.ssu.educ.ph/index.php/CDRJ/article/download/163/123/
Pambid, R. C. (2017). Level of Application of Family Development Session to Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P’s) Beneficiaries. PSU Journal of Education, Management and Social Sciences, 1(1), 16-25. Retrieved from http://psurj.org/wpcontent/uploads/2018/01/JEMSS_0004.pdf
Quimson, P. (2020). The implementation of Pantawid Pamilya in a performing in province in the Philippines as basis for policy on poverty reduction mechanisms. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(13), 219-226. https://doi.irg/10.31838/jcr.07.13.37
Reyes, C. M., Tabuga, A. D., Mina, C. D., & Asis, R. D. (2013). Promoting inclusive growth through the 4Ps. Philippine Institute for Development Studies. Retrieved from https://pidswebs.pids.gov.ph/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidsdps1309_rev.pdf
Samson, M., Fajth, G., & François, D. (2016). Cognitive capital, equity and child-sensitive social protection in Asia and the Pacific. BMJ Global Health, 1(Suppl 2). Retrieved from https://gh.bmj.com/content/bmjgh/1/Suppl_2/i19.full.pdf
Saraspe, L. D., & Abocejo, F. T. (2020). Effectiveness of descriptive praise on the English composition skill of bridging students. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 5(4), 18-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejel.v5i4.3140
Seger, A. (2021). Precarious Lives of Children and Youth in the Philippines: Critical Perspectives on Rights-based Approaches to Development and Empowerment. (Master's thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology). Retrieved from https://ntnuopen.ntnu.no/ntnuxmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2784742/no.ntnu%3Ainspera%3A80893378%3A50628817.pdf?sequence=1
Tabilog, R. P., Mapola, M. M. B., Cantillano, C. D., Cabrera, M. C., & Mañabo, R. D. (2017). Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): The effectiveness on social welfare and development. In Proceedings from LEBM-17: 11th International Conference on Law, Education, Business and Management. Manila, Philippines. Retrieved from http://uruae.org/siteadmin/upload/ED1217106.pdf
Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Reyes, Celia M. (2012). Conditional cash transfer program in the Philippines: Is it reaching the extremely poor? PIDS Discussion Paper Series, No. 201242, Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS), Makati City, Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/126897/1/pidsdps1242.pdf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).