International Journal of Social Science Research and Review <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management and&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;History</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> Global Institute for Multidisciplinary Knowledge and Responsible Future, University of Duisburg-Essen en-US International Journal of Social Science Research and Review 2700-2497 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (<br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><img src="//" alt="Creative Commons License"></a> <br><br></p> Direct Characterisation and the Depiction of HIV/Aids Theme in the Zulu Novel, Ngidedele Ngife <p>This paper aims to explore how E.D.M. Sibiya uses direct characterisation in presenting the theme of HIV and Aids in his Zulu novel, <em>Ngidedele Ngife</em> (2006). Although Sibiya uses both the direct and indirect methods of character delineation in his novel, the focus of this paper is on the direct method. And, as we intend to argue, his strategy seems to be effective as it enables him to present the intended themes successfully. The HIV/Aids theme is one of the sensitive themes from which writers shy away, but Sibiya manages to explore it to educate people. A narratology theory is used to examine the effect of characterisation in the presentation of theme, and the focus is on personality traits and physical appearances of characters. This paper reveals that Sibiya successfully handles direct characterisation to educate people about the HIV and Aids symptoms, how they manifest, and the stereotypes linked to the HIV/Aids pandemic.</p> Nozipho Lungile Poswa Dumisani Mziwokuphila Sibiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 1 13 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2071 A Critical Analysis of the European Union (EU) Securitization of African Migration as Societal Insecurity <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper focuses on the version of EU constructed interrelation between migration and security whereby African migration (regular and mostly irregular) is perceived threatening to the European civilization and national security with the need for extraordinary measures to address it. This delineates how African migration to Europe becomes securitized and the basic tenets of the securitization substantiate how it has been one-sidedly portrayed. The EU securitization approach towards African migration and its counterproductive outcomes have attracted the attention of this research. This approach is criticized to have created a distorted stereotypical image about African migrants generally while it has failed to prioritize and address the different socio-economic and political conditions fueling irregular migration from the continent. This research has relied on secondary sources and employs a qualitative research method, which reviews current literature on the topic under study. It aims to critically analyze the EU securitization of African migration as societal insecurity with the use of Copenhagen School of Security Study (CSS) conceptualization of securitization and societal security as structural and theoretical framework of the study. CSS elucidates the possibility of transferring a non-political issue or event into the field of security through a speech act, which is known as securitization, and international migration is one of the common focus areas of securitization theory. This research keys on deconstructing the general perception of African migrants as existential threats to the European society compelling xenophobia and societal security issues, necessitating various strict migration policies adopted against African migrants.</p> Opeoluwa Adisa Oluyemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 14 27 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2149 The Transformation of the Character Sengkuni from Wicarita to Kakawin Bharatayuddha in the Perspective of Literary Anthropogeneology <p style="text-align: justify;">This article attempts to provide an answer to the question of the transformation of the character Sengkuni. The study aimed to explain the transformation process of Sengkuni. The perspective used is literary anthropogenesis. The results of the discussion show that the character Sengkuni in <em>Kakawin Bharatayuddha</em> has undergone an aesthetically transformed process. The process of change is intertextual. Therefore, from the perspective of literary anthropogenesis, there are two important things to note about the character Sengkuni in Bharatayuddha. First, there is a concept of the influence of the Javanese philosophy of life that gives colour to Sengkuni from the works of Old (<em>kuna</em>) Javanese literature, new Javanese literature, and recent Javanese literature. The concept of influence in <em>wayang</em> literary studies is the development of Javanese personality values that are still valid and related to moral ethics. Secondly, there is a change in the form of the transformation of the character Sengkuni from <em>wiracarita</em> (an epic) to Javanese literary texts. The transformation of Sengkuni is still characterized by the noble Javanese personality, so there may be still a kind of judgment on the character Sengkuni as a metaphor for a wicked life. In the eyes of the Javanese, the character Sengkuni is often seen as evil.</p> Suwardi Endraswara Sri Harti Widyastuti Hesti Mulyani Venny Indria Ekowati Suryobintoro Suryobintoro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 28 42 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2084 The Influence of Digital Technologies on Sustainable Supply Chain Performance in Public Procuring Entities: A Moderating Effect of Legal Frameworks <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examined the impact of digital technologies on the performance of sustainable supply chains in public procuring entities, with a specific focus on Tanzania. The study was conducted using the Technology-Organization-Environment model, Resource Based Review, and Schumpeter Theory of Innovation as guiding frameworks. The study employed the positivism research paradigm and utilized the simple random sampling technique to gather data from a sample of 410 respondents. The data collection process utilized descriptive and explanatory cross-sectional survey research methods. The data were obtained by administering questionnaires and conducting a review of relevant documents. The collected data was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling with the assistance of SmartPLS 4 software for inferential statistics analysis. For descriptive statistics analysis, IBM SPSS Statistics Version 26 was utilized to examine the data collected on respondents' profiles. The results indicate that the implementation of Internet of Things, Blockchain, Big Data Analytics, and Legal Frameworks as a moderator has a beneficial impact on the performance of Sustainable Supply Chains. The study suggests that buyers, suppliers, service providers, and contractors in Tanzania and other developing countries should incorporate Internet of Things, Blockchain, Big Data Analytics, and Legal Frameworks to effectively implement Sustainable Supply Chain Performance.This study successfully addressed the need for a specific model that defines the factors influencing the performance of a sustainable supply chain, with legal frameworks acting as moderators. This paradigm is absent from the current collection of empirical and theoretical literature.</p> Deus N. Shatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 43 57 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2150 Mapping the Livelihood Vulnerabilities of Women Informal Workers in Coimbatore District During Covid-19 <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study was undertaken to examine the women informal worker’s socio economic profiles, nature of work and challenges faced by them during COVID – 19 in Coimbatore district. Empirical research design has been adopted. Primary data has been collected from women informal workers residing in Coimbatore District. Five specific informal sector groups namely, construction workers, street vendors, waste-pickers, domestic workers and homeless persons have been considered for the study. Considering that a very limited database of informal sector workers exists, sample of 149 informal workers in 11 taluks of Coimbatore District has been chosen using snow-ball sampling technique. Interview schedule will be adopted to collect data from the women workers. Data collected has been analyzed using Percentage analysis and weighted average ranking method. The findings of the study reveals that the COVID-19 lockdown have increased debt of the women in informal sector.&nbsp; The study also found that the expectations of this workforce from the government, including minimum wages, job security, and improved workplace safety. Overall, these findings call for targeted interventions and policy measures to address the specific needs and challenges faced by women informal workers, ultimately contributing to their resilience and well-being.</p> B. Indira Priyadharshini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 58 71 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2151 The Concept of Preaching the Gospel According to Paul in the Book of Romans 5:8-11 <p style="text-align: justify;">This article aims to reaffirm the belief in the concept of Gospel proclamation as taught by Paul, especially in the book of Romans 5:8-11, as a motivator for Christians to remain obedient in carrying out the mandate of Gospel proclamation despite the many challenges they face. To address the purpose of this writing, a literature study approach is used, combining exegetical study of the text of Romans 5:8-11. The concept of Gospel proclamation according to Paul is obtained as follows: First: Gospel proclamation is an absolute idea of God in His love; second is the content of Gospel proclamation is about the death of Christ for the redemption of human sins; third is Gospel proclamation is intended for all humanity; fourth is the reward for welcoming the Gospel news is the assurance of justification and eternal life; and fifth is rejection of the Gospel news is making oneself an enemy of God. The theological implications are, first, the motivation for Gospel proclamation is based solely on God's love for humanity; second is the motivation for Gospel proclamation is based on believers' love for God; and third is the motivation for Gospel proclamation is based on believers' love for others.</p> Alvonce Poluan Kalis Stevanus Budi Kartika Hendi Hendi Tan Lie-Lie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 72 82 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2152 Project Management theories and Corporate Governance: Towards Effective Management of Small Farming Cooperative Projects <p style="text-align: justify;">Project management is defined as the process of applying project knowledge, skills, tools and processes to the established tasks of a project to fulfil the objectives of the project. The planning, execution, controlling, monitoring and closure processes are guided by domains of expertise such as integration, scope, budget, schedule, quality, procurement, communication, human resources, stakeholder management and risk management. This paper sought to analyze theories of project management and corporate governance for effective management of small farming cooperatives. The study adopted a conceptual approach to demonstrate the managerial processes of the theories of project management and corporate governance and how they relate to one another. In the process the literature has revealed that project management is seen by organizations as new methods to plan and manage changes. These planned activities, if not properly coordinated using project management skills, may lead to an unsuccessful project. Project success depends on number of factors ranging from project efficiency, impact on the customer, impact on the project team impact and business or organizational success. The Corporate governance (CG) has been increasingly prevalent in organizations in recent years, and its significance is now acknowledged on a global scale. It has even been adopted by countries where regulations governing the use of CG in organizations have yet to be implemented. The reason for CG's universal appeal is that it serves as the cornerstone of an organization’s operational structure. The article concludes with the relevance of these theories towards effective management of small farming cooperatives.</p> M. H Mbulaheni M. L Shipalana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 83 91 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2153 Militarization of Democracy and the Resurgence of Military Coups in Africa <p style="text-align: justify;">Although the wave of democratization has swept through Africa from 1990s thus reinforcing the acceptability of democratic principles of governance, the post-colonial states in Africa have historically been confronted with incessant military interventions. The recent resurgence of military incursion in Africa has led to the remonstrance of scholars and policy makers involved in seeking nuanced understanding in this democratization process questioning the efficacy and resultfulness of democracy and the military interventions in the continent. This research methodologically explores relevant secondary sources of data within qualitative research method to examine the various undemocratic practices enacted by African political leaders as attributed features of a militarized democracy creating an enabling environment for the advent of military resurgence in the continent. This article avers that, the version of democracy embraced by political leaders in Africa is a militarized democracy whereby authoritarian and autocratic principles are characterized proprium of civilian governments leading to various challenges militating against the continental development, which also created an enabling environment for the military interventions.</p> Opeoluwa Oluyemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 92 105 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2154 Ho Chi Minh Thought on Comprehensive Human Development in Vietnam’s Perspective <p><em>Comprehensive human development has always been considered an important issue, ensuring each country's rapid and sustainable development, including Vietnam. To find suggestions for identifying and solving problems related to human development in Vietnam today, in this article, we focus on clarifying the basic contents of Ho Chi Minh's thoughts on comprehensive human development and show that this ideological system contains many progressive, suggestive, and oriented values for the cause of comprehensive human development in Vietnam today. Ho Chi Minh's thoughts covered topics such as holistic human development. In Ho Chi Minh's thought, human development is approached from the angle of liberating the people to achieve their best possible potential, Creating a prosperous and happy country, Freeing people from oppression, Developing a relevant education system, Building and expanding democracy, and developing positivity and self-discipline among individuals.&nbsp; With all these factors in place, the result is a well-rounded individual.</em></p> Quoc Khanh Lai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 7 6 106 117 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2124 Impact of School-Community Collaboration on the Academic Achievements of Learners with Disabilities in Inclusive Schools Within Tamale Metropolis <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>The Purpose</strong>: This study examined how school-community collaboration affects the learning outcomes of learners with disabilities in inclusive schools in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. This piece delves into how schools and communities working together can enhance the educational growth and achievements of children with disabilities in inclusive learning environments.&nbsp;<strong>Methodology/Design/Approach:</strong> This study utilises questionnaires to gather data, employing a quantitative research design. The participants of this survey were selected using a simple random sampling technique. The study involved a sample of 100 participants, consisting of teachers and parents/guardians of learners with special needs in inclusive schools within the Tamale Metropolis. The data is analysed using Excel and APA (Version 27) analytical tools to establish frequencies, and patterns, and gain insights into the study.&nbsp;<strong>Findings:</strong> This paper highlights the importance of schools and communities working together to improve the educational outcomes of children with disabilities in inclusive environments. It revealed that collaborative efforts, including community involvement in curriculum development, provision of support services, and awareness campaigns, have a positive impact on academic performance, communal integration, and the general well-being of children with disabilities. In addition, the study emphasises the significance of forming partnerships to overcome obstacles to inclusive education and create a supportive learning environment for all students.&nbsp;<strong>Originality/Value:</strong> This study contributes to the existing research by providing empirical evidence on the significance of school-community collaboration. It improves the academic success of children with disabilities within inclusive schools. This research brings to light the effectiveness of the collaboration between the school and the host community in promoting inclusive education and advocating for the rights of children with disabilities. It highlights the significance of collaborative initiatives in achieving these goals.</p> Issaka Cecilia Alimatu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 118 131 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2173 The Constitutional Right to Adequate Housing: What can Tanzania Learn from South Africa? <p style="text-align: justify;">This article aims to examine the possibility of incorporating the right to adequate housing as a fundamental right in the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania. Specifically, the article argues that the current strategy for protecting and fulfilling this right is ineffective and inefficient. This is due to the Constitution’s classification of the right under the so-called directive principles of state policy, rendering it unenforceable. The article acknowledges and addresses various critiques and perspectives that maintain that social and economic rights (SERs) are challenging to recognize as fundamental rights, complicating their judicial enforcement due to their intricate nature, content, and scope. On the other hand, the right to adequate housing is an example of those socio-economic rights that South Africa has successfully included in its Constitution. South Africa has also established a strong body of jurisprudence on the enforcement of such rights. In doing so, South Africa has demonstrated that SERs can indeed be recognized as fundamental rights and enforced in court. In light of South Africa's experiences in the protection of socio-economic rights including the right to adequate housing, this article explores the lessons that Tanzania can learn from South Africa, focusing on the reasonable and meaningful approaches adopted by the South African Constitutional Court in enforcing the right of access to adequate housing.</p> John Cantius Mubangizi Justina Danda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 132 149 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2174 Trade Facilitation Reforms Implementation by Developing Countries: The Case of Zimbabwe <p>Following the expiry of the exemption window for delayed implementation penalties, all members of the World Trade Organisation are obliged to comply fully with the Trade Facilitation Agreement or risk substantial penalties including expulsion.Despite various trade facilitation initiatives&nbsp; implemented, poor trade facilitation still impedes the smooth movement of goods and services at Zimbabwe's ports of entry&nbsp; leading to perceived marginalisation in the global trading system.This paper reviews the current trade facilitation landscape in Zimbabwe by compounding perspectives of scholars and other reserach organisations interested in trade facilitation reforms in the country. Investigation show that the counry has made significant strides in the implementation of trade facilitation initiatives. While all the border agencies in Zimbabwe has a legal manadate to fulfill, customs seems to be the only agency equipped with enough resources to effectively carry out&nbsp; their duties.Processes by different governmeny agencies still remain fragmented and some regulatory agencies still lack comprehensive and enforceable guidelines that clearly outline the procedures for appealing and reviewing decisions, thereby hindering the trasparency and effectiveness of the multi-stage appeal process.There is also a need for extension of risk management automated system to all concerned agencies, as it is currently confined to customs. The paper recommends a co-odinated approach on governement related trade issues including alignment of line ,ministries, integration oftrade facilitation information,creation of trade awreness platforms, resource mobilization , fair resource distribution and equitable agency participation at all ports of entry.</p> Nombeko Gumbo Peter Nkala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-17 2024-06-17 7 6 150 175 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2136 The Role of Social Capital in Tourism Awareness Groups for Tourism Management <p style="text-align: justify;">This study describes the role of social capital within the tourism awareness group of Nagari Sungai Nyalo Mudiak Aia. Through qualitative analysis using purposive sampling techniques and a non-probability sampling approach. The results show that the role of Islamic religious norms and Minangkabau traditional values serves as the fundamental basis for interactions and activities among the tourism awareness group members. Cooperation among members, based on local solidarity and trust, plays a role in strengthening social and economic networks, promoting greater involvement in tourism management, and enhancing service quality. The role of the network formed between the tourism awareness group, the Nagari-Owned Enterprise, and the district government through collaboration serves as a medium for asset management and tourism training. This highlights the importance of social capital in facilitating access to resources and strengthening local economic development initiatives.</p> Iqbal Rahmat Gani Triyanti Anugrahini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 6 176 183 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2176 The Criminal Liability for Perpetrators of Falsifying Online Loan Identity Documents <p style="text-align: justify;">Many business collaborations are carried out by business actors in the form of contracts or agreements made in writing. This loan provider is a financial service provider institution that operates online with the help of information technology. Criminal law regulations regarding the criminal act of manipulating electronic documents so that they can be considered as authentic data refer to article 35 of the ITE Law. The application of criminal law (criminal law application) is one of the efforts to overcome crime. The approach method used in this study is normative juridical, which is carried out by means of literature research. Article 35 of the ITE Law is more appropriate to be imposed on the crime than article 263 of the Criminal Code. Efforts to combat crime need to be taken with a policy approach before criminal efforts.</p> Endah Pratika Hasto Putri Eko Soponyono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 7 6 184 192 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2164 Application of Justice Theory in Legal and Rights Perspective Human Rights in Indonesia <p style="text-align: justify;">In various countries around the world, human rights are highly respected because basically every human being has the same rights, even though they have differences in various aspects. One of the theories of human rights (Human Rights) is the theory of justice.The purpose of this research itself is to find outimplementation of Law and Human Rights in Indonesia as wellto find out papplication of the theory of justice in law and human rights in Indonesia. The methodology used in this research is normative juridical which is sourced from secondary data, namely from statutory regulations and journals.The existence of the theory of human rights justice should have made law enforcers aware that in resolving a case or legal problem it must be fair and not biased, so as not to give rise to sentences that are blunt upwards sharp downwards. So you can understand that the theory of human rights justice and law, more precisely, the rule of law are closely related.</p> Presilia Dara Purwono Joko Setiyono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 7 6 193 200 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i6.2163