International Journal of Social Science Research and Review <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management and&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;History</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> Global Institute for Multidisciplinary Knowledge and Responsible Future, University of Duisburg-Essen en-US International Journal of Social Science Research and Review 2700-2497 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (<br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><img src="//" alt="Creative Commons License"></a> <br><br></p> The Impact of Perceived Digital Celebrities on Live-Stream Shopping Intention of Shopee Live Users in Jakarta <p style="text-align: justify;">In the age of digital advancement, shopping activities have changed, one of which is live streaming. Consumers do not need to come to the store to see a product in person, but are represented by a streamer. Through the streamer, the buyer gets a picture of a product before deciding to buy. This study aims to analyze the effect of perceived digital celebrity on live stream shopping intention with the mediation of perceived enjoyment and perceived utility. The sample selection method in this study uses non-probability sampling using purposive sampling technique. The sample size in this study was 260 respondents who were users who had watched Shopee Live live streams and lived in Jakarta. Data collection using a questionnaire distributed online via Google Form. The results showed a positive and significant influence for perceived digital celebrity on live-stream shopping intention, perceived enjoyment and perceived utility can partially mediate between perceived digital celebrity and live-stream shopping intention. Through this research, it can provide information for online sellers to increase perceived enjoyment and perceived utitly so that it can foster purchasing intentions on live steam shopping and can increase sales.</p> Adrian Hartanto Rodhiah Rodhiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 1 11 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2055 Exploring Citizen’s Satisfaction with the Police in Developing Society <p style="text-align: justify;">To develop a harmonious and productive relationship between citizens and the police in Trinidad and Tobago (T&amp;T) it is important to first understand the impact of procedural justice and satisfaction with the police which was the aim of this study. A quantitative research methodology was used with an online survey of eight multiple-choice questions with responses aligned to a Likert scale. The results showed that 47.5% of participants were not satisfied with the police service, and only 10% felt very satisfied. The results indicated that officer did not use the correct procedures, disrespectful, undignified, unfair, lack transparency and inconsistent. The results highlighted the need for practice and policy changes in the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service especially during a contact with citizens. It was suggested that there was the need for continuous professional development (CPD) towards improving officer's skills, knowledge, and behaviour (KSB) which could enhance officers and citizens relations. Key Words: Satisfaction; Policing; Citizens; Trinidad and Tobago; Post-Colonial.</p> Gabriel Julien Michael Mathura ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 12 26 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1949 The Profile of the Tutor Teacher in Higher Education: A Qualitative Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;">Currently, society demands from higher education young graduates capable of entering the world of work possessing skills that allow them to develop fully in professional life, the university will therefore be responsible for preserving personal integrity, motivation, orientation towards improvement, permanence and academic perseverance of young people who enter the university, in which the tutor teacher plays a fundamental role as long as the established tutoring is action-oriented and this can be known by analyzing the qualitative aspects of tutoring, the framework of communication, empathy and collaboration that the tutor teacher develops is his daily work, which will allow the academic quality of the students to be raised through this process of group and personalized accompaniment. To prepare the state of the matter, various materials were consulted such as theses, research, refereed articles and presentations, all by Mexican and foreign authors, publications were found that will serve to prepare the state and cited authors and others were consulted in a more superfluous manner. publications that were discarded due to their lack of relevance to the project. This information will be presented by the author emphasizing the relevance for the research, with criteria such as social relevance, academic relevance, conceptualization and theoretical support.</p> Jennifer Quiroz Fragoso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 27 32 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1929 Law Enforcement Effectiveness Against the Practice of Money Politics on the Implementation of Regional Head Elections in 2018, in Lahat District (Case Study of Judgment Number: 238/Pid.Sus/2018/PN.Lht) <p style="text-align: justify;">This study investigates the effectiveness of law enforcement measures in curbing the pervasive practice of money politics during the implementation of regional head elections in 2018, focusing on the case of Lahat District. Money politics, characterized by using financial resources to influence electoral outcomes, poses a significant threat to the democratic process and the integrity of elections. The research aims to assess law enforcement agencies' strategies to counteract and prevent the infiltration of money politics in the electoral landscape. The methodology involves a comprehensive analysis of legal frameworks, law enforcement initiatives, and their practical implications in the Lahat District during the 2018 regional head elections. Data will be collected through interviews with key stakeholders, including law enforcement officials, election commission representatives, political candidates, and community leaders.Reviewing relevant documents, reports, and media coverage will also contribute to a holistic understanding of the electoral process dynamics. The findings of this study aim to provide insights into the challenges faced by law enforcement agencies in the Lahat District and propose recommendations for enhancing their effectiveness in addressing the issue of money politics. Understanding the specific context and experiences of the Lahat District can contribute to the development of targeted strategies that can be applied more broadly to strengthen the overall integrity of regional head elections in Indonesia and beyond. Ultimately, the research aspires to advance transparent, fair, and democratic electoral practices by mitigating the influence of illicit financial activities on the political process.</p> khairunissa khairunissa Suharyono Suharyono Helwan Kasro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 33 36 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1933 Flashcard Strategy Role in Teaching English Vocabulary: A Systematic Review <p style="text-align: justify;">This systematic review investigates how&nbsp;flashcards function in different educational contexts to teach vocabulary. The study summarizes data from empirical research released in the last three years, which are from 2021–2023. It focuses&nbsp;on how flashcard-based interventions affect vocabulary acquisition, retention, and overall teaching outcomes. The findings provide insights into the advantages, limitations, and best practices associated with employing flashcards in vocabulary instruction.</p> Qusay Mahdi Mutar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 37 53 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1979 Service Delivery Protests in the South African Government <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>T</em>he social insecurity present in the nation has impeded the desired democratic system from thriving in various communities due to the lack of progress since its inception. The municipal authorities continue to grapple with governance and service provision issues within their communities. The 1994 victory sparked anticipation and excitement in society, leading to the expectation of policy changes and the rectification of past imbalances. However, the situation has resulted in discourse, inequality, and conflict among communities and state institutions. Municipal authorities have been at the centre of service delivery protests and their inability to address the needs of the communities they serve. Protests have erupted at all levels of government, with the majority becoming violent and fueled by various motivations. This study aims to evaluate relative deprivation and community protests within the South African context and to explore their relationship. Furthermore, it seeks to provide possible recommendations on how to address this phenomenon. The study posits that service delivery protests are influenced by relative deprivation, which has persisted due to inadequate service delivery. The paper suggests that inclusive policies that encourage public participation and foster trust in state-society relations can alleviate deprivation and protests. The study used a qualitative approach, gathering data from secondary sources and materials.</p> Mahlatse Ragolane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 54 65 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1973 The Role of Motive Evidence in Premeditated Murder Cases <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this study is to investigate the role of proving motive in cases of premeditated murder, as well as to determine the significance of proving motive in such cases. This research falls under the category of normative legal research, employing a statutory approach, conceptual approach, and case approach. The findings of this study reveal that proving motive in premeditated murder serves three main functions. Firstly, it helps establish the involvement of individuals in criminal activities. Secondly, it assists in determining the elements of criminal liability. Lastly, it plays a crucial role in determining the severity of punishment. Consequently, proving motive holds a fundamental position in establishing criminal acts, particularly in cases of premeditated murder. The position of motive in premeditated murder necessitates the presentation of various arguments, as outlined in this thesis. One key argument is the essentiality and necessity of motive in proving the core offense of "intentionally" as stipulated in Article 340 of the premeditated murder statute.</p> Muhammad Fikrillah Amir Uddin Rina Khairani Pancaningrum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 66 83 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2056 The Role of Employee Engagement in the Relationship between Staff Morale and Employee Wellbeing of Nurses in the South African Public Hospitals <p style="text-align: justify;">Employee engagement is essential for corporate success and is a requirement for gaining and retaining a competitive edge in public hospitals. This study assesses the role of employee engagement on the relationship between staff morale and employee wellbeing of nurses in public hospitals. A quantitative approach using self-administered questionnaires was applied to 461 nurses in the public hospitals of six provinces in South Africa for data collection. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) application was used to analyse the data obtained in the research. Ethical considerations were applied throughout the research process. Employee engagement was significantly and partially related to staff morale and employee wellbeing, and staff morale and employee wellbeing were significantly and related to employee engagement. Furthermore, the study determined that employee engagement has a mediating and moderating role in the relationship between staff morale and employee engagement. The study concluded that is that management needs managers should bring teamwork, motivation, trust, engagement, growth, and development to their employees, to identify their believes, hope, values, interests, and needs and know to what extent it matches with the hospital values, believes and goals.</p> Lulama Mabe Mphoreng Magdeline Mmako Ilze Swarts ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 84 101 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2057 The Role of the State Apparatus in Following Up on Indications of Corruption to Reduce Corruption Rates Case Study of Ogan Ilir Palembang <p style="text-align: justify;">Corruption is a severe threat to the development of a country. The crucial role of the state apparatus in following up on indications of corruption to reduce corruption rates is the main focus of this paper, using a case study in Ogan Ilir, Palembang. This study investigates strategies and concrete steps the state apparatus takes in tackling the region's corruption. An in-depth analysis of the local situation reveals the importance of oversight and transparency in government institutions, ensuring accountability and preventing corrupt practices. Furthermore, efforts to strengthen the legal system and fair law enforcement play a crucial role in reducing corruption. This case study also highlights the active participation of the community in supporting efforts to eradicate corruption and raising awareness of the dangers of corruption for sustainable development. This analysis confirms the importance of integrity and ethics in the bureaucracy, which is the foundation for building a clean and corruption-free system. By strengthening the role of the state apparatus and supporting community participation, Ogan Ilir, Palembang, and other regions can step towards better change, reduce corruption, and create a more just and prosperous country for all its citizens.</p> Ali Wijaya Erli Salia Abdul Latif Mahfuz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 102 105 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1972 Analysis of the Role of Agribusiness in the Indonesian Economy <p style="text-align: justify;">Agribusiness is an important support in national economic development. This research aims to determine the complete agribusiness system that is interrelated with economic activities. This research methodology is a literature review which is based on Indonesian government regulations. The results of this research show that agribusiness has a strategic role in the formation of GDP, employment, international trade, regional economic development, national food security, environmental preservation, and equal distribution of development results. In the development and implementation of agribusiness that is already underway, there are still many obstacles. To solve very complex economic problems, especially in the agricultural sector, Indonesia requires sharpening (focusing) economic development strategies which are expected to be able to provide solutions to existing problems. So synergy is needed in the agribusiness sector, namely between agriculture, plantations, animal husbandry, fisheries, and forestry with the development of upstream and downstream agricultural industries as well as the development of related service sectors therein.</p> Rita Feni Edy Marwan Edi Efrita Neti Kesumawati Riyanto Efendi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 106 113 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2014 Level of Economic Development and National Policies in Mexico and Nigeria (1970-2018): A Comparative Analysis of Growth and Institutions <p style="text-align: justify;">The research compares Mexico and Nigeria's growth and development disparities using Sen and Collier's frameworks by examining various factors. It aims to propose policies on interest rates, FDI, external debt, government spending on health, education, and welfare. Results highlight positive impacts on Mexico's GNI from external debt, government spending, and FDI, and in Nigeria, all variables except interest rates positively affect GNI. Key recommendations include reducing Nigeria's debt by investing in bonds, using domestic debts and for both countries; enhancing welfare through Progresa, transparency in expenditure using online reporting, and infrastructure; boosting income and employment in Mexico with knowledge transfer, innovation, and transport improvements; and addressing violence by alleviating poverty through proposed subsidy programs and anti-corruption measures.</p> Omolara Adebimpe Adekanbi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 114 148 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1982 Implementation of Regent Regulation Concerning the Determination of the Amount of Housing and Transport Allowances for Leaders and Members of the Regional People's Representative Council <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examines the practical implementation of Regent Regulation, which focuses on determining houses and transport allowances for leaders or members of the Regional People's Representative Council (DPRD). The regulation, enacted to address issues related to financial compensation for public officials, holds significance in ensuring fair and transparent remuneration practices while maintaining fiscal responsibility. The research employs a mixed-methods approach, combining document analysis of the regulation and supporting documents with interviews and surveys involving key stakeholders, including council members, administrative officials, and community representatives. The investigation aim to assess the effectiveness of&nbsp; the regulation in achieving its intended objectives, uncover potential challenges faced during its implementation, and gauge the perception of various stakeholders regarding its adequacy and fairness of the determined allowances.&nbsp;</p> Hilwen Hilwen Sri Suatmiati Khalisah Hayatuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 149 152 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1956 Corporatization of Professional Bodies: A Comparative Study of the Chartered Institute of Government Finance Audit and Risk Officers (CIGFARO) and Institute of Local Government Management (iLGM) <p style="text-align: justify;">Corporatization of professional bodies may be seen as a new phenomenon, but it has been a call since the 1980s when many professional bodies started experiencing decline. Although corporatization, as practice, is a private sector concept, applying it in the management and administration of professional bodies is likely to provide a better turn-around in how professional bodies are managed. Part of corporatization is having corporate governance structures including ethics codes which are meant to professionalize professional bodies. This study therefore compared the Chartered Institute of Government Finance Audit and Risk Officers (CIGFARO) and Institute of Local Government Management (iLGM) with a view to establish if they apply corporatization.</p> Mpilo Ngubane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 153 164 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2058 The Influence of Profitability and Capital Structure on Company Value with Dividend Policy as a Moderating Variable in Consumer Companies which is listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the 2018-2021 Period <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to examine and analyze the company value of consumer companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. The variables tested include Profitability, Capital Structure, Company Value with Dividend Policy as a Moderating variable. This research involves consumer companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the 2018-2021 period. Sample selection was carried out using the purposive sampling method. The data used is external data, obtained from the site The data analysis process was carried out using PLS Algorithm calculations using SmartPLS and then hypothesis testing was carried out. Results. Research shows that Profitability has a positive relationship towards Company Value, Capital Structure has no effect on Company Value, Dividend Policy is unable to mediate the influence of Profitability and Car Structure on Company Value.</p> Cindy Tanaka Nagian Toni Aremi Evanta br Tarigan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 165 176 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2059 Crime Prevention Through an Environmental Design Approach in Reducing Crime Rates in Indonesia <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to analyze crime prevention through an environmental design approach in crime prevention policies in Indonesia and to analyze weaknesses in crime prevention through an environmental design approach in reducing the rate of crime in Indonesia. By using normative legal research methods. The results of this research show that crime prevention through an environmental design approach in crime prevention policies in Indonesia, Indonesia has never used the concept of crime prevention through an environmental design approach in crime prevention policies in Indonesia. Because the CPTED concept is a crime prevention concept that is not known in Indonesia. The concept that is often known as Secure Guard Area is a concept that offers an area where crime prevention mechanisms are completely handed over to security officers. Crime prevention in the concept of security officers must have the ability to carry out territorial areas, the ability to carry out surveillance, must be able to have the ability to portray a good image of the environment, so that officers are able to provide comfort and security for the areas in their duties. Then, the weaknesses in the crime prevention approach through environmental design in reducing the rate of crime in Indonesia, in understanding the weaknesses in CPTED, the author divides them into three weaknesses, namely theoretical weaknesses are a process and not a result and in practice the CPTED process often fails to consider the risk of crime in detail. adequate. Juridical weaknesses and practical weaknesses.</p> Muh. Zafri Ramadhoan Amiruddin Amiruddin Ufran Ufran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 7 4 177 195 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2060 Expert Testimony in Law Enforcement of Corruption in the Procurement of Goods and Services in Handling Emergencies <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of this research is to examine the extent of regulations regarding the utilization of expert information in the investigation of corrupt criminal acts, as stipulated in Law Number 8 of 1981 on the Criminal Procedure Code. Additionally, it aims to analyze the use of expert information in the investigation of corrupt criminal acts related to the procurement of goods and services in emergency situations. The research employs normative legal research methods. The findings reveal the role of expert testimony in the criminal law enforcement process based on Law Number 8 of 1981 on the Criminal Procedure Code. Expert testimony can serve as evidence in a criminal case in two possible ways: as expert testimony itself or as documentary evidence. Expert testimony is presented in court under oath or affirmation according to the individual's religious beliefs. On the other hand, documentary evidence is provided during an examination by an investigator or public prosecutor, in the form of a report that takes into account the oath taken when assuming the position or job. Furthermore, the use of expert information in elucidating the investigation process of corrupt criminal acts in the procurement of goods and services during emergency situations holds non-binding power. Expert information serves as a tool to mitigate the potential for human negligence. By drawing upon the information provided by experts, a coherent narrative can be constructed to uncover the truth, with the expectation that the Mataram Police Criminal Investigation Unit can reach a judgment (ratio decidendi). From the expert statement from PBJ, the Mataram Police Criminal Investigation Unit obtained this expert statement which was able to explain the case currently being handled regarding a criminal act of corruption at the NTB Province Small and Medium Enterprise Cooperative Service, that there had been a conflict of interest of the parties involved, either directly or indirectly.</p> Sugianto Sugianto Amiruddin Amiruddin Diangsa Wagian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 7 4 196 216 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2061 The Siliguri Corridor: A Historical Analysis of Geo-Political Vulnerability in Eastern India <p style="text-align: justify;">The Siliguri Corridor, a mostly geo-strategic term often associated with the security architecture of eastern India, is an important geo-political space that has received special attention from experts on security, strategy and foreign policy ever since India’s independence. It has been touted as one of the most vulnerable areas of India from a security perspective, as well as the gateway to the country’s north-east and by extension, towards Southeast Asia. The current structure and geography of this corridor is a result of gradual additions as well as losses of territory in its history. This includes various policies implemented under the British colonial rule in India, followed by subsequent treaties after independence. This paper studies the genesis of the Siliguri Corridor and in the process makes an attempt to understand the historical background of settlement, migration and development of the areas which compose this corridor. It also analyzes the impact of colonialism and its contributions towards the continuing security dynamics in the region. To achieve this, a detailed study of the addition of these areas into the Indian subcontinent throughout various stages of its history has been focused upon. The paper also contributes towards addressing the dearth of literature in understanding the exact area and geographical extent of the corridor with the objective of highlighting its structural composition to add to the discourse on its security which so far has been limited to the widely discussed idea that at its narrowest, the corridor is only about 20 to 22 kilometers wide.</p> Aditya Kant Ghising ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 7 4 217 228 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2062 Workers' Perceptions Towards the Establishment of Workplace Forums in South African Industries <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of workers towards the establishment of workplace forums in South Africa industries. Workplace forums are committees of employees elected by employees for employees in a workplace. These bodies promote the interests of all employees in the workplace, not only of trade union members. In this study, 30 respondents (management and employees of all races and gender) were selected to participate from 230 employees using a simple random technique. The cluster system was used to divide the industry into departments from which the final respondents were selected. The observation method and most of the official records and statistics were also used to collect and solicit the necessary information for this research. The central view held by this study was that workplace forums are very useful in achieving efficiency in the workplace and that they help in improving trade union activities. The critical view of the study was that there are few workplace forums established in South African industries. This showed that, the industries should provide some possible measures for the establishment of the workplace forums to reduce industrial unrest. But the problem is that trade unions did not encourage this because they see workplace forum as a threat to them. Nonetheless, special attention was on workplace forums because it was taken as a second channel of representation which intended to be one of the primary instruments of the Labour Relations Act (LRA) to democratise the workplace. The study recommended that; workplace forums should be established in all industries. Trade unions should be involved in the workplace forums. There should be the prevention of the establishment of other forums within one organisation. Management and workers should work together to prevent impending conflict.</p> Prudence Marty Zikhali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 7 4 229 241 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2063 Analysis Study of Acquisition of Rights to Land Resulting from Beach Reclamation in Bima City <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to analyze the process of implementing the acquisition of rights to land resulting from coastal reclamation in the city of Bima and to examine the legal implications of the reclamation activities along the Bima coastline. The study adopts an empirical legal research approach, incorporating statutory, conceptual, and socio-legal perspectives. Both library and field data are utilized in the research process. The findings of the study reveal the procedural intricacies involved in obtaining rights to land resulting from coastal reclamation in Bima City. The acquisition of these rights necessitates alignment with the regional spatial plan (RTRW) and relevant laws and regulations. The implementation unfolds in two stages: initial unauthorized landfilling and subsequent issuance of certificates for reclaimed beaches, constituting an illegal act. The legal implications of such unlawful beach reclamation in Bima City manifest in several ways. Firstly, the Ownership Rights and HGB (building use rights) certificates authorized by the National Land Agency (BPN) may be considered illegitimate. Secondly, the Bima City government faces restrictions in collecting Property Tax (PBB) and Land and Building Acquisition Duty (BPHTB) taxes on land resulting from the illegal reclamation.</p> Zulfikar Rangga Utama Arba Arba Muh Risnain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 7 4 242 260 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2064 Revisiting Philosophical Dichotomies in South Africa's Post-Colonial Policing Foundational Structures: A Retrospective Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;">This article examines the historical and medieval policing paradigms in South Africa, focusing on the integration of diverse policing styles worldwide, including indigenous precolonial African policing systems. Irrespective of efforts to modernize policing, remnants of Eurocentric and Americentric approaches persist, rooted in colonial and apartheid legacies. Through qualitative document analysis, it's evident that within contemporary policing in South Africa, there are similarities influenced by historical practices driven by colonisation, racism, and oppressive ideologies that excluded the indigenous majority. To a certain extent, these influences impede effective crime resolution. The article advocates for a paradigm shift towards blending a resource-based policing model and African pre-historic policing systems (syncretic), diverging from the prevailing business-centric approach. This model emphasizes continuous adaptation to crime trends, situational responses, and community dynamics, incorporating multidimensional factors such as historical context, social policies, and cultural influences. Embracing this model offers South Africa a more inclusive and effective approach to hybridised policing tailored to its unique challenges and persistent aspirations.</p> Lesiba Lolly Motsepe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 7 4 261 272 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1976 Convergences and Divergences of Special Education and Social Education <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to assess the convergences and divergences of Special Education and Social Education in a school context, seeking to investigate the relationship between these two domains in a school context and understand how Higher Social Education Technicians (TSES) and teachers of Special Education perceive these relationships in the work they develop with students. A sample composed of seven Special Education teachers and seven Higher Social Education Technicians (TSES) from different geographical areas of Portugal was studied. As a data collection instrument, we used the questionnaire and semi-structured interview. The results obtained made it possible to sustain the relationship and complementarity between Special Education and Social Education, looking at the student as a whole, considering the educational, social, personal, cultural and psychological dimensions.</p> Inês Oliveira João Casal Luís Picado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 7 4 273 283 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.2073 The Processing of Forensic Investigative Leads in Criminal Investigations Conducted by the South African Police Service <p style="text-align: justify;">The adverse impact of crime undermines not only a nation’s peace and stability, but also the safety and security of its communities. Furthermore, crime affects a nation’s economy, its citizens’ standard of living, and its standing with prospective foreign investors and tourists. Forensic investigative leads (FILs) are crucial in the investigation and resolution of crime. The South African Police Service (SAPS) allocates significant resources to analyse exhibit materials and forensic databases containing vital forensic biometric information. By conducting comparative searches in these databases, FILs are generated and communicated to detectives to facilitate investigation, detection and conviction. This article does an in-depth analysis of local and international literature, examines data from the CAS/ICDMS system and reports on qualitative interviews conducted with SAPS detectives, forensic examiners, and international forensic experts. It delineates the consequences of the underutilisation and an inadequate understanding of FILs on detection rates within the criminal justice system. The research not only identifies barriers to reporting and utilising FILs, but also recommends ways to enhance the regulatory framework, information technology systems, and detective training programmes within the SAPS. Emphasising adherence to ISO standards to maintain FIL reliability during forensic examinations, the study underscores the resource constraints faced by detectives, which affect FIL utilisation and impede the desired outcomes in detection and conviction rates. The article proposes that the SAPS can overcome these challenges by prioritising resource allocation to detective forensic investigative units to enable them to follow up and investigate FILs.</p> J H Smith J S Horne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 7 4 284 303 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i4.1984