International Journal of Social Science Research and Review 2022-10-03T23:36:45+00:00 Coordinator Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>Sociology</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Multicultural studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Public Relations</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Religious Studies&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> FACTORS AFFECTING FIRM PERFORMANCE IN COMMERCIAL IRAQI BANKS 2022-09-15T21:17:02+00:00 Shadi Taha Cemil Top <p>The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of several potential factors on the performance of banks in the context of a developing country, Iraq. Profitability is one of the top priorities for banks and other businesses, as they can maintain and sustain their financial position, expand their equity, and improve their solvency and liquidity by achieving appropriate returns; thus, strengthening their ability to handle the risks and obligations they face. The study sample consists of 10 commercial banks listed on the Iraq Stock Exchange during the period 2009 -2020. The collected panel data were analyzed using Pooled Ordinary Least Square method. Bank performance is measured through the usage of ROA and ROE. The explanatory bank-specific variables are size, liquidity ratio, total loan to total asset, and bank age. The explanatory economic-specific factors are GDP, inflation rate, interest rate, and cash reserve rate. The results show that the considered explanatory variables affect bank performance with different levels of impact.</p> 2022-09-09T18:59:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors Affecting the Dividend Policy with Company Size as Moderating Variable on the IDX30 Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange for the Period of 2018-2020 2022-09-15T21:17:02+00:00 Vivian Vivian Rasinta Ria Ginting Enda Noviyanti Simorangkir <p style="text-align: justify;">The rapid development of the world has intensely driven corporate competition. In order for the business to run continuously, funds are needed from investors. On the other hand, the main purpose of an investor investing their funds is to seek income or a rate of return on investment. This income attracts investors to invest in the company. Hence, dividend policy is a topic that is often discussed in the financial sector. So, this research was conducted with the aim of knowing the extent to which the influence of certain financial ratios such as Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE), Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) can affect dividend policy with company size as moderating variable on the IDX30 index stock which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in 2018 – 2020. The method of determining the sample is carried out by the purposive sampling method. The data was obtained from the IDX's official website, namely and the official website of each company which is secondary data. The results show that Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) partially have a significant effect on Dividend Policy. Company size cannot moderate the relationship of Return on Assets (ROA) to Dividend Policy. Companies can moderate the relationship of Return on Equity (ROE) and Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) to Dividend Policy. Company size has no effect on dividend policy.</p> 2022-09-09T19:11:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Immigration and Colonization in the Acculturation of Halal Food in European Countries: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review 2022-09-15T21:17:03+00:00 Abdelhadi Halawa <p>Halal food consumption and the halal market economy in Europe have been steadily growing among both Muslim and non-Muslim populations. This growth has been propelled by the rising number of Muslim immigrants in European countries. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review and synthesize a multitude of existing scholarly findings extracted from peer-reviewed research and reliable web-based sources on the role of Muslim immigrants in the acculturation of halal food in European countries. An electronic database search in the available literature was conducted to identify and select data from cognate studies. The collected data were examined and analyzed employing a systematic review methodology. The combined findings of Muslim immigrants’ role and contributions to halal food acculturation in Europe are discussed. A systematic search of major electronic bibliographic databases, printed books, verified fact-based newspaper articles, and credible web-based sources was conducted. A cross section of a total of sixty-four data sources was included in this review. Findings suggest that the acculturation of the halal food process in European countries has been effective and facilitated by waves of Muslim immigrants, centuries of colonization of Muslim countries by many former European colonizers, adhering to religious requirements to consuming halal food, cultural and peer influences on halal food consumption, perceived control over consuming halal meat, developing a bicultural identity in the host country, as well as the increasing acceptance of the non-Muslim European consumer to consuming halal food as a healthier alternative to fast food and processed food products. There is a need for further research to better understand the economic and socio-cultural impact of the acculturation of halal food on the behavior of non-Muslim European consumers. This might serve as a paradigm for future research to better understand what influences halal food product consumption in non-Muslim European countries and globally.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The The Influence of Management Change, Audit Opinion, and Audit Fee on Auditor Switching with Financial Distress as a Moderating Variable in Property and Real Estate Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange 2022-09-15T21:17:03+00:00 Fenny Fenny Rasinta Ria Ginting Enda Noviyanti Simorangkir <p style="text-align: justify;">Every company, especially those that are growing, needs a lot of support from investors. Investors will think of injecting funds when the company has high profits and low bankruptcy risk. Therefore, large companies choose to use KAP services when auditing financial statements. Auditor Switching is the change of auditors by the company or the auditors themselves, and the purpose is to maintain auditor independence. This study was conducted to determine the influence of Management Change, Audit Opinion, and Audit Fee on Auditor Switching with Financial Distress as a moderating variable in property and real estate companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2019-2021. The sample was taken using purposive sampling, where the population was 62 companies, and after deducting the research criteria, the research sample consisted of 32 companies, so that in 3 years there were 96 companies. Statistical test using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with Partial Least Square (PLS) approach. The results of the study simultaneously show that Management Change, Audit Opinion and Audit Fee affect Auditor Switching. Partially, the Path coefficient shows that the Management Change and Audit Opinion has a positive and significant influence on Auditor Switching. Audit Fee has a negative and significant influence on Auditor Switching. While Financial Distress is not able to moderate the influence of Management Change and Audit Opinion on Auditor Switching, Financial Distress can moderate the influence of Audit Fees on Auditor Switching.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploration of Distracted Road Users in Road Traffic Accidents in South Africa 2022-09-15T21:17:03+00:00 Mmakwena Modipa <p style="text-align: justify;">Distracted road users contribute to high rate of road traffic accidents globally and it is also prevalent in South Africa where many road users lose their lives on the road due to distraction. The inability of road users to adhere to the rules of the road with regard to the use of cell phones, driving while impaired, walking while impaired and all other means of distraction while on the road is a major problem in South Africa. Road users should be focused on the road and follow the rules of the road and avoid other aspects which could derail their journey and lead up to fatality as it is the case on South African roads. This article focused on distracted road users who contribute to high rate of road traffic accidents in South Africa. The article is based on a qualitatively rooted methodology including a wide range of primary and secondary sources. The article further draws on the findings from the world on road safety and formulate steps to road traffic accidents as a result of being distracted on the road. The research based key steps leading to prevention of road traffic accidents as a result of being distracted on the road in South Africa.&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inability Formulation of Perpetrators to Pay Restitution to Children Victims of Sexual Exploitation 2022-09-15T21:17:02+00:00 Rezha Marinda Lucky Endrawati Faizin Sulistio <p>This study aims to determine, analyze, and formulate whether the State can pay off restitution that cannot be paid by the perpetrators to children who are victims of the crime of sexual exploitation; and formulate the formulation of provisions regarding the provision of compensation to children victims of the crime of sexual exploitation who cannot obtain restitution because the perpetrator is unable to pay in order to comply with the principles of non-discrimination. This study is an example of normative legal research, employing a statutory and conceptual approach. In this study, the author employs a systematic and theological interpretation approach to the analysis of legal materials. According to the findings of the study, the State could compensate criminals for their inability to pay restitution by providing them with a nominal sum of money. However, this compensation is only available for heinous human rights violations and acts of terrorism. In addition to gross human rights violations and terrorism, this has led to new problems, including injustice for victims, particularly children who are victims of sexual exploitation, who do not receive compensation because the perpetrators cannot pay them.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Concept of Morality in Teaching and Training 2022-09-15T21:17:02+00:00 Nurullah Darici <p>Morality is the collection of unwritten norms that govern the acceptable or unacceptable behavior of a community. To sustain order in a community, individuals must adhere to specific norms. Some of these regulations are moral codes, such as traditions and conventions. Customs and traditions include a component of morality. Researchers have been investigating what learning is for decades. Educators have emphasized the significance of moral education and how to impart morality to students regardless of the learning domain. This circumstance calls for more acknowledgment of both the learner and the learning environment. This article focuses on teaching morality to students in the context of education and a few aspects that influence the moral development of pupils.</p> 2022-09-09T20:42:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Digital Era Governance and the Political Economy of Digital Communication Control in Tanzania 2022-09-19T19:15:33+00:00 Yulli Jeremia Bebia <p style="text-align: justify;">The advent of digital era governance which encapsulates both the enhanced role of digital technologies and non-state actors in governance processes in the 21<sup>st</sup> century has raised hopes for a more open government that caters for the interests of all groups. While this has been a mainstay for cyberlibertarians, critical political economists have demonstrated that digital technology is path dependent meaning that it is conditioned by traditional power structures that had kept the marginalized outside the political sphere. This paper revisits this debate by exploring the motives of digital communication control in Tanzania in the context of New Public Governance. It deploys the critical political economy approach to explore the experience of engagement in governance processes by two CSOs i.e., Twaweza and JamiiForums in Tanzania. The paper concludes that digital communication can temporarily transform dominant power structures that had traditionally kept the disempowered groups out of the public sphere and thus threatening the political and economic interests of elites. On the long run, however, the elites through the state are capable of controlling the transformative potential of digital communication to protect their political and economic interests like it had been the case for traditional media<em>. </em></p> 2022-09-11T20:28:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Artistic Depiction of a Woman’s Tragedy in Uzbek Literature 2022-09-15T21:17:02+00:00 Vazirakhon Askarovna Akhmedova <p style="text-align: justify;">This article analyzes the works of E.Azam “Zabarjad” and “Parizod”, one of the brightest representatives of the Uzbek literature of the independence period, and discusses the essence of the tragedy of women, the factors influencing its occurrence.</p> 2022-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ratio Legis Differences in Abortion Provisions in Law Number 36 of 2009 Concerning Health and the Criminal Code 2022-09-15T21:17:02+00:00 Widodo Hadi Pratama I Nyoman Nurjaya Lucky Endrawati <p style="text-align: justify;">This research seeks to identify, describe, and analyze why the health law regulates abortion for rape victims while under the Criminal Code abortion is illegal and regarded a crime, as well as the abortion provisions for rape victims that should be regulated in the Health Law. In this paper, normative legal research was conducted. This research focuses on the Legis Ratio of Differences in Abortion Provisions in Law No. 36 of 2009 Concerning Health and the Criminal Code. The method utilized is the statutory approach. The findings revealed that the prohibition against abortion, which is a Dutch heritage, is prohibited in the Criminal Code because abortion is regarded antithetical to natural law and cannot be ethically justified in Greek and Roman law. The Health Law is permitted under the condition that there is an indication of a medical emergency and because the pregnancy is caused by rape, taking into account the good name of a woman or her family, if the pregnancy is caused by rape and can cause psychological trauma to the rape victim, including for the victim's unborn child. Nevertheless, the provisions in the health law do not provide legal certainty that the time limit for performing abortions on rape victims is six weeks/forty days from the first day of menstruation; this time is deemed insufficient to provide protection for victims due to the limited time required to obtain consent to allow abortions or not.</p> 2022-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fishermen’s Perception of the Existence of Mangrove Forest on Fish Catches in Margasari Village Labuhan Maringgai Subdistrict 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Irwan Effendi Helvi Yanfika Indah Listiana Indah Nurmayasari Widyastuti R.A.D Anna Gustina Zainal Rinaldi Bursan <p>The purpose of research on fishermen's perception of the existence of mangrove forests to fish catches in Margasari Village, Labuhan Maringgai Subdistrict is to know the level of public perception and know the factors related to the level of public perception.&nbsp; This study was conducted in July - December 2021 with a sample of 30 respondents to Margasari Village fishermen related to mangrove presence and fishing.&nbsp; Data collection is conducted using interviews, observations, and literature studies, which are analyzed with a qualitative descriptive approach. The results of this study suggest that the perception of fishing communities is in the high category, especially in the dependence of the community on mangrove ecosystems, while factors related to fishermen's perceptions are education level, age, work experience, business ownership, and frequency of fishing.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-11T21:26:21+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Traditional Rain Control Practice Through Indigenous Knowledge System and Technology Among Ikire People of Osun State, Southwest Nigeria 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Abiola Opemipo Tella <p>This paper aims to trace the history of rain prevention, and examine for documentation, the rituals involved. Traditional rain control in this context is considered as a process involving the making and preventing of rain to modify atmospheric condition of a place using Indigenous Knowledge and Technology (IKT). Rain control ritual is an age-long indigenous knowledge and technology aimed at influencing weather condition. As part of a broadened African society, the art of preventing rainfall is a part of the heritage resources practised by the people of Ikire in Osun State. This ritualistic art which is put to use mainly during socio-cultural gatherings such as festivals, feasts, burials, weddings, and naming ceremonies is called òjòwíwó or òjòmímó in local parlance. The help of rain doctors is sought by people who want to carry out any of these activities during rainy seasons to avoid disruption. Ethnographic method was used to elicit information. Research findings traced the art of rain prevention to Orunmila a god in Yoruba mythology. The rituals involved the use of the details of IKT which is significant in the response of the people to the ever-changing climate</p> 2022-09-11T21:38:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Tax Avoidance and Tax Risk on the Cost of Debt with Institutional Ownership as Moderating Variables in the Sub-Sector of Large Trade Listed on the Bei 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Suparman Suparman Nagian Toni Evanta Br. Tarigan <p>This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of tax avoidance and tax risk on the cost of debt with institutional ownership as a moderating variable in the wholesale trade sub-sector listed on the IDX. This type of research is causal associative. The Population in this study is Big Trading Sub-sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The sampling method is<em>&nbsp;purposive sampling</em>, so the number of samples used is 6 4 research sample data. Methods of data analysis using Eviews 10. The results show that tax avoidance and tax risk affect the cost of debt in large trading sub-sector companies listed on the Indonesian stock exchange in the 2017-2020 period. Institutional ownership is not able to moderate the relationship between tax avoidance and tax risk on the cost of debt in large trading sub-sector companies listed on the Indonesian stock exchange in the 2017-2020 period</p> 2022-09-11T21:55:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Indigenous Garo Women's Role in Family Transformation in Bangladesh 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Md. Harunur Rashid Tanjil Ahmed Subal Nokrek Nazmul Hasan Tamanna Akter <p>The study aims to explore the roles of indigenous Garo women in transforming their families in Bangladesh.&nbsp; A quantitative approach was applied to conduct the study while the social survey method was used to collect data and information. The study reveals that the socio-economic status of Garo women is very poor as 35% of them completed the primary level of education and 40% passed the secondary level of education while 64% of Garo women are day laborers and 61% are loan receivers. Conventional role-female headship has been changing overwhelmingly as both husband and wife are playing vibrant roles in the family building where 80% of family decisions are being taken jointly. Though the traditional role of female headship is being changed, women have to perform 69% of household activities. Their participation in local social organizations is impressive (74%) but they are reluctant to involve in local politics.&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-12T19:21:09+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Self-Concept of Migrant Women in the Shackles of the Role and Position of Patriarchic Culture in Pontang Community 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Rahmi Mulyasih Ahmad Sihabudin Fahruddin Faiz <p>The self-concept of migrant women, is part of the meaning that comes from the communication symbols obtained from the stimuli obtained both verbally and non-verbally. Differences in the reception of stimuli received by migrant women lead to different perspectives in shaping the self-concept of migrant women in their role in the scope of patriarchal culture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to see how the self-concept of migrant women is seen from their role and position as wives in patriarchal culture. The research method used in this study is ethnomethodology, where the ethnomethodology method looks at the social reality of individual activities which then creates a place for social actors. From this, the research results obtained that there are differences in the self-concept of migrant women in interpreting their role and position as a wife, this is based on the construction obtained from the surrounding environment, both family and community</p> 2022-09-12T19:36:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Issuing of the Sukuk Framework in Afghanistan and Its Contribution to Economic Development 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Farid Ahamd Heravi <p>This article aims to provide an essential and significant proposal for the Sukuk issuance framework and explore its necessity in Afghanistan, to be Consistent with Shariah’s requirements and in light of the other Muslim country's experiences, especially Malaysia. The problem is, how can Afghanistan increase its economic development by issuing sukuk, and struggle against poverty and unemployment, and what are the advantages of sukuk on the financial dimension of Afghanistan? &nbsp;The article is divided into two axes. Accordingly, the first axis of this article focused on the general analysis of Sukuk and contains the Islamic worldview of Sukuk, the concept of Sukuk, the basic principles of Sukuk, requirements of Sukuk, benefits of sukuk, common types of Sukuk, securitization, and the most important distinctions between Sukuk and conventional bonds. The second axis gives information on how Sukuk can be issuance in Afghanistan and its regulatory framework, and legal and economic challenges, and provides suggestions for overcoming these obstacles as well. It investigates the remarkable impact of Sukuk on economic growth in Afghanistan in all aspects such as (GDP) Gross Domestic Product, (GCF), Gross Capital Formation, poverty eradicating, unemployment reduction, obtaining an independent financial system, prevention of budget shortfalls, contribution economic development. The data were collected from primary sources such as a questionnaire which has been conducted between the scholars and experts of Islamic financing, and secondary resources such as books, publications, websites, and official reports. &nbsp;Consequently, the findings showed that Sukuk financing will have an extraordinary impact on the Afghanistan economic system like its remarkable influences on economic growth for (SEAC) countries of south Asia, and (GCC) The Gulf Cooperation Council countries, therefore the searcher suggests securitization in Afghanistan as well for financing growth and economic development</p> 2022-09-12T20:12:45+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Android-Based E-Module Development to Improve Ecological Literature in Pancasila Education and Citizenship Elementary School Subjects in Bekasi District 2022-09-15T21:17:00+00:00 Titin Sunaryati Nadiroh Nadiroh Mohamad Syarif Sumantri <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to improve ecological literacy by developing teaching material products in the form of android-based electronic modules. The type of research used is Research and Development (R&amp;D). The model used is a 4D development model, namely, 1) (define) definition, 2) (design) design, 3) (development) development, and 4) (dissemination) dissemination, using observation, interview, and questionnaire techniques. The research data were analyzed using the percentage formula. From the results of the assessment of material experts, the percentage is 93.2%, with very decent criteria, media experts are 96.8% with very proper criteria, and small-scale trials are 96.8% with possible standards. Large-scale product trials are an average percentage of 93.1% with very good criteria. The effectiveness of the e-module in improving ecological literacy was determined using the t-test. Effectiveness is seen in the average score of ecological literacy in the experimental class and the control class, there is a significant difference in the score of increasing ecological literacy before and after using the e-module. Electronic modules based on Android Pancasila and citizenship education subjects in grade VI Elementary School exceed the interval value of &gt;80% which is very suitable to be used as additional teaching materials to support distance learning activities.</p> 2022-09-13T17:05:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ideological-Epistemological Aspects of Mirzo Babur’s Worldview 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Bakhromjon A. Gafurov <p style="text-align: justify;">This article discusses the ideological and epistemological aspects of Mirzo Babur’s worldview. It can be seen that Mirzo Babur solved the main problem of philosophy from an objective, religious-theological point of view. This worldview also applies to most medieval thinkers, especially those close to him in terms of period and region. From this, we can conclude that this objective idealistic religious-theological dogmatic outlook of Mirzo Babur was based on the principle of consistent, strict idealistic monism.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Financial Ratio on Profit Growth with Company Value as a Moderating Variable in Automotive Companies and Components Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Ester Ester Nagian Toni Sauh Hwee Teng Galumbang Hutagalung <p>The purpose of this study is to determine and analyze the effect of financial ratios on profit growth in automotive and component companies listed on the Indonesia stock exchange, with firm value acting as a moderating variable. There were 12 companies during the 2015-2020 research period. This type of research is known as causal associative research. In this study, the population consists of automotive and component companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The census sampling method was used, so 72 research sample data were collected. Using eviews 10 for data analysis. Profitability and liquidity were found to have a significant partial effect on profit growth. Leverage and activity ratios, on the other hand, had no significant impact on profit growth in automotive and component companies listed on the Indonesian stock exchange between 2015 and 2020. In the 2015-2020 period, profitability, liquidity, and activity leverage ratios all have a significant impact on profit growth in automotive and component companies listed on the Indonesian stock exchange. Profit growth is affected by profitability, leveraged liquidity, and activity ratios.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## “Measure What Matters”: The Challenges Brought by Non-Categorisation of Gender-Based Violence and Femicide as a Crime at Higher Education Institutions, South Africa 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Jacob Tseko Mofokeng Kagiso Nicholas Tlou <p style="text-align: justify;">Crime in South Africa is categorised in a way that no two crimes can carry the same meaning. Hence, the crime of theft does not relate to the crime of house robbery. Gender-based violence and femicide (GBVF), is a very serious crime that is not categorised as a crime on its own, but is a crime which is identified through other crimes. This paper investigates the impact of the lack of categorisation of GBVF as a crime. The reviewed literature outlined a sense of confusion by the higher education institutions (HEIs) when addressing this crime. There is a sense of misunderstanding on which crimes constitute to be identified as GBVF, since GBVF is not categorised as a crime in the South African Police Service (SAPS) statistics. The reviewed literature outlined that GBVF has developed, and evolved overtime and it now has many terms that associate with it, these terms can range from domestic violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), violence against women (VAW), and attacks on the lesbians gays bisexuals transgender queer questioning and intersex community (LGBTQI). From the findings and recommendations, HEIs can be able to better respond to cases of GBVF on campus.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Implementation of Technological Innovation in the Production of 'Harimau' Medium Tanks Make use of the National Defense Industry's Independence 2022-09-15T21:17:00+00:00 Gathut Imam Gunadi Unggul Satrio Yudhotomo Manan Manan <p>Efforts to develop the defense industry are to encourage innovation, because only with innovation can an industry always develop competence in the form of technology development and commercialization. The innovation process includes research and development, prototyping, demonstration, commercialization and after-sales service. Innovation is a combination of invention and commercialization of technology. So that innovation requires a process from the background of the needs to the achievement of success during commercialization. Currently, Indonesia has one type of medium tank technology called the Harimau. Basically, Indonesia has implemented technological innovation in the development of the medium tank technology 'Harimau'. Howeever, there are still challenges in the way of implementing these technological advancements, including whether or not their aplication may lead to defense industry independence or vice versa. This paper aims to analyze the national defense industry on the technological innovation of the medium tank 'Harimau'. The SWOT (Stengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) method is used in this analysis. This research is planned to give an analysis of defense industry technology developments that will advance the provision of defense and defense equipment to land-bases forces.</p> 2022-09-13T19:08:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of the Cosimpol Simulator in Mediating Dialogue for the Covid-19 Pandemic 2022-09-18T12:59:00+00:00 Shamim Bodhanya Cecile Gerwel Proches <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has created widespread turbulence. We have witnessed how the lockdowns in South Africa negatively impacted the economy, resulting in unemployment and loss of livelihoods. Various sectors, including the education and tourism sectors, have been severely impacted and we are now seeing the myriad economic and social issues that are coming to the fore. It is clear that we are faced with a complex, messy situation, characterised by multiple stakeholders who hold diverse mental models and perspectives. The main aim of this chapter is to draw lessons for consideration by policy-makers in South Africa dealing with the pandemic, by understanding how the CoSimPol simulator model can be used in mediating dialogue for the COVID-19 pandemic. The model caters for multiple factors including bed capacity, hospital care, use of Personal Protective Equipment and non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing. From a conflict and peace perspective, a key contribution of this chapter is to demonstrate how models such as CoSimPol may be applied not only for predictive capacity in formulating policy, but more significantly ought to be used as transitional objects for dialogue between contending parties and positions.</p> 2022-09-13T19:28:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Return on Equity, Debt to Equity Ratio, Current Ratio on Dividend Policy with Company Size as Intervening Variable on IDX 30 Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2018-2020 2022-09-15T21:17:00+00:00 Namira Ufrida Rahmi Herman Junianto Yusuf Ronny Edward <p>Investment is an activity of placing funds in an asset or more to increase current or future income for a certain period. Each investment has different level of risk and return. Dividend policy is a topic that is often discussed in the financial sector. Dividend policy relates to dividend payments by the company, namely in the form of determining the amount of dividends to be distributed in cash and the amount of retained earnings for the benefit of the company's development and operations. The percentage of profit that is distributed as dividends is referred as the Dividend Payout Ratio. So, this research was conducted with the aim of knowing the extent of the influence of certain financial ratios such as Return on Equity (ROE), Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Current Ratio (CR) on Dividend Policy with Company Size as an Intervening Variable in IDX 30 companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange 2018-2020. The method of determining the sample is done by purposive sampling method. The data was obtained from the IDX's official website, namely and the official website of each company which is secondary data. The results showed that ROE had no effect on company size. DER has an effect on company size. CR has no effect on company size. Company size has no effect on dividend policy. ROE has an effect on dividend policy. DER has no effect on dividend policy. CR has no effect on dividend policy. Company size is not able to be an intervening variable of the relationship between ROE, DER and CR toward dividend policy.</p> 2022-09-13T20:09:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of Inquiry Learning Model Based on Information Literature Skills for Total Quality Management Courses 2022-09-15T21:17:00+00:00 Rinawaty Rinawaty Robinson Situmorang Sukardjo Sukardjo <p>This research aims to develop an inquiry learning model based on information literacy skills for the total quality management course. This research uses research and development (R&amp;D)—data collection techniques using questionnaires, interview guidelines, observation. as well as tests and non-test. The data analysis techniques used are (a) data reduction, (b) presenting the data, and (c) drawing conclusions and verifying the subjects of this research are students at the Management and Accounting Study Program, Trianandra College of Economics (STIE) Jakarta. The results of this study indicate that the information literacy-based inquiry learning model developed through research and development has proven to be effective in improving learning outcomes and information literacy skills of students majoring in management at STIE Trianandra Jakarta. This is evidenced by the results of small group trials which show the average student pretest results are smaller than the average post-test results (36.33, &lt; 41.69), with the difference in the value of the two is 5.36. b. The information literacy-based inquiry learning model developed through research and development is feasible to be implemented as a learning model in the TQM course at the STIE Anandra Jakarta management study program. First, the characteristics of the appropriate students are all digital natives, and are already familiar with digital devices, Second, based on the results of small trials and large group trials, both students and lecturers assessed that the learning group materials developed through research and development had good interest in the aspects of attracting attention, relevance, self-confidence, and satisfaction.</p> 2022-09-13T20:17:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Learning and Learners’ Inability to Learn a Foreign Language 2022-09-15T21:17:00+00:00 Hasan Gurbuz <p style="text-align: justify;">Learning is the long-term changes in the individual's behaviour due to experiences. For knowledge and skill to be considered learning, there must be a change in the individual's behaviour, and this change must continue. In this case, repetition is important for learning to become permanent. There are some major issues that students should pay attention to while trying to learn a foreign language. Some are directly related to each other and can be named as lack of motivation, staying within the comfort limits, long vacations, not repeating, and not prioritizing needs. In this study, the most obvious factors affecting the learning of foreign language learners were determined, and it was emphasized what to pay attention to in the learning process.</p> 2022-09-13T20:30:21+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Exploratory Study on Contributing Factors to the Extinction of Indigenous Plants in South Africa 2022-09-15T21:17:01+00:00 Nyiko Faith Shibambu <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this study was to explore the contributing factors to the extinction of indigenous plants in South Africa. This was due to the evident depletion and loss of indigenous plants in most rural areas in South Africa. This study adopted qualitative research approach with exploratory design. Seminal studies on this subject were purposely collected using keywords extracted from the research topic. Again, Textual Content Analysis was used to analyse the collected data. The results of this study, confirms that indigenous plants are threatened by the human-induced and natural factors. The most notable human factors are the methods of procuring the plant materials, whereas the natural factors are mainly erratic rainfall and rising temperature patterns This study recommends urgent conservation measures such as proper harvesting methods and documentation of indigenous knowledge to mention the least, should be introduced and those that already exist should be properly used in order to prevent the loss of indigenous plants. Advance initiatives are needed to inform policy on adaptation and coping with the factors that contribute to the extinction of indigenous plants.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Community Empowerment in Implementing the Policy of Kelurahan Fund Allocation in Kelurahan Agung, Tanjung District, Tabalong Regency 2022-09-15T22:45:28+00:00 Novi Hariadi Ahmad Suriansyah Siswanto Rawali <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to find out how to empower the community in Tabalong Regency and to find out what factors are the success of community empowerment in implementing the Village Fund allocation policy in Agung Village, Tanjung District, Tabalong Regency. This research uses a qualitative approach with a descriptive type of research. Data collection techniques used through interviews, observation and documentation. Data analysis used qualitative data analysis techniques, namely data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusions. The results showed that community empowerment in implementing the village fund allocation policy in Agung Village, Tanjung District, Tabalong Regency had been going well but not yet fully successful. It is still found factors that affect community empowerment, several factors that affect the implementation of community empowerment with the allocation of village funds in the Agung sub-district, Tabalong Regency, such as the identification of the social system of the village apparatus for the village community is still not optimal and there has been no follow-up from the village government on the empowerment group that has been implemented. successful in directing and developing the results of empowerment group products.</p> 2022-09-15T11:05:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of the Use of Google Classroom as a Low-Grade Integrated Thematic Learning Medium During the Covid-19 Pandemic 2022-09-15T22:45:28+00:00 Aulia Fajar Khasanah St,Y, Slamet Rukayah Rukayah <p style="text-align: justify;">During the COVID-19 pandemic, internet technology was critical to develop. As a result, schools are required to incorporate information technology into the learning process. The goal of this study was to determine how lower grade students used Google Classroom as an integrated thematic expansion medium. The descriptive qualitative method and case study approach were used in the research. Data collection methods include observation, interviews, and documentation. One of the online learning solutions is to use Google Classroom as an interactive learning media based on e-learning to assist teachers and students in the teaching and learning process from home in support of ICT-based learning. The findings revealed that the use of Google Classroom as a medium of learning in lower grades has not been maximized for these students; it is necessary to become accustomed to applying learning using Google Classroom learning media for face-to-face online meetings, learning materials, and learning evaluation so that teachers can explore the learning media used during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of this study have implications for developing a thematic tracking system that is more effective and appropriate for teachers and students in learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2022-09-15T13:00:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Regional Health Insurance Services in North Buton Regency 2022-09-15T22:45:27+00:00 Adrian Tawai Syarif Syarif <p>The National Social Security System aims to guarantee the health of all Indonesian people in stages. This study aims to examine the factors that influence the effectiveness of regional health insurance services in the North Buton Regency. The research data collection techniques used three approaches, namely observation, interviews, and documentation which were then analyzed using a qualitative approach. The results of the study indicate that the facilities and infrastructure as support for health insurance services are not adequate, the internet network is not optimal, and the apparatus resources are not adequate. In general, this study can conclude that the effectiveness of regional health insurance services in the North Buton Regency is not adequate</p> 2022-09-15T13:30:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rethinking Development in Africa: Agenda 2063 and John Wesley’s Socio-Political Theology 2022-09-15T22:45:29+00:00 Isaac Boaheng <p>Africa remains underdeveloped despite many years of conceptualising, formulating and implementing different development policies and programs. Africa’s developmental challenges have attracted attention from various stakeholders and many factors have been identified as contributing to the problem. The African Union, at its Golden Jubilee celebration in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) in 2013, adopted a new development plan aimed at making Africa a key player in global affairs by 2063. Africa’s new development Agenda has been engaged at various conferences and seminars. However, not much theological engagements with the document have been witnessed so far. The purpose of the paper is to explore how a contextual application of selected aspects of John Wesley’s socio-political theology might catalyze the achievement of two of the seven aspirations set out in Agenda 2063. The main thesis of this paper is that human political activities are deeply rooted in God’s political nature and hence must be exercised within God’s sovereign rule. The paper concludes that the development of Africa must not only focus on socio-economic progress but also on moral/spiritual development. The paper contributes to the ongoing scholarly discussions on Agenda 2063 and provides Christians, political leaders in Africa and other stakeholders with theological framework for achieving a holistic and sustainable development in Africa.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gardening of Ustrushana in the Middle Ages (On Archaeological Materials) 2022-09-15T22:45:29+00:00 Omon Uktamovich Mamirov <p>The question of the development of medieval culture of gardening in Ustrushаna remains open, and this question should be elucidated on the basis of bioarchaeological research. The article highlights archaeological research in this area and materials reflected in material culture.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lebanese Sunni Muslim Politicians’ Narratives on the Political and Religious Leadership of the Lebanese Sunnis: Reconstructing Inclusive Political Leadership in Lebanon 2022-09-15T22:45:28+00:00 Moaz El Sayed <p style="text-align: justify;">In this article, Sunni Muslims politicians’ narratives on the political and religious leadership of the Lebanese Sunnis are examined in an effort to reconstruct inclusive political leadership in Lebanon. The Lebanese Sunnis are primary actors in the Lebanese politics. The significant role played by Sunnis is recognised in the National Pact 1943, which paved the way for Lebanon’s independence from France together with the Taif Agreement, which ended Lebanon’s civil war. The signing of the agreements culminated into the establishment of the confessional political system in Lebanon and enabled the Sunnis to constitute an integral part of that system. However, Lebanon is still saddled with internal political problems worsened by the struggle for influence over Lebanon from external actors. The overlapping between domestic and foreign factors is critical in constructing Sunni narratives on their leadership. Sunni framing constructions suggest that the Sunni leadership is galvanising the Sunni community to serve its own interests. The disempowerment of Sunnis is mainly attributed to the failure of their political and religious leadership. This article, therefore, argues for the reconstruction of inclusive leadership in Lebanon. This will enable the Lebanese actors to delegitimise identity politics and promote national cohesion and stability. It also recommends the establishment of independent electoral commissions, prohibition of foreign funding of political groupings, and dismantling of the confessional political system in Lebanon.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Premarital Sexuality and Gender in Morocco 2022-09-15T22:45:27+00:00 Youness Bermime Mohamed Benzidan <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The rise in the average age of marriage calls into question the sexual activity of young Moroccans. This study investigates the attitudes toward premarital sex and its practice among young Moroccans. Data was collected through an online questionnaire and analyzed based on gender. The results show that 40.2% of unmarried, young Moroccans, mostly men, have premarital sex. The analysis shows how cultural biases result in significant gender differences in practice and attitudes toward premarital sex. These gender differences signal a double standard that results in a dysfunctional Moroccan society.&nbsp;</span></p> 2022-09-15T19:56:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE EFFECT OF LABORATORY-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES AND MATHEMATIC LOGICAL INTELLIGENCE ON LEARNING OUTCOMES OF LINEAR ALGEBRA COURSES 2022-09-18T22:52:06+00:00 Darmin Dafid Basuki Wibawa Robinson Situmorang <p>This study aims to: (1) analyze the difference in the mean difference that laboratory-based learning is better than the RME (Realistic Mathematics Education) learning strategy and DL (Direct Learning) learning strategy. Methods This research uses quantitative research with experimental methods is 3×2 factorial with three levels of qualification of independent variables: laboratory-based learning strategies, Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) learning strategies, and Direct Instruction (DI) strategies. The results of this research are Differences in learning outcomes for linear algebra courses between students who are taught using laboratory-based learning strategies and students who are trained using DL (Direct Learning) learning strategies, and those prepared using RME (Realistic Mathematics Education) learning strategies. The average difference value (mean difference) that laboratory-based learning is better than the RME (Realistic Mathematics Education) learning strategy and DL (Direct Learning) learning strategy. Linear Jabar on students with high and low mathematical and logical intelligence. This is in line with the explanation that knowledgeable people will more readily accept or understand lessons. There is an interaction between learning strategies and logical-mathematical intelligence on linear algebra learning outcomes. Based on the study results, it is explained that the collaboration between learning strategies and logical-mathematical intelligence is a form of interaction or influence of learning strategies on learning outcomes of linear algebra courses on mathematical, logical intelligence, or vice versa.</p> 2022-09-18T12:40:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Urgency of Introduction Elections in the Mechanism of the Presidential Nomination in Indonesia 2022-09-21T22:59:55+00:00 Rahmat Muhajir Nugroho Sudarsono Sudarsono Istislam Istislam Muchamad Ali Safa’at <p>Preliminary elections are urgent to be implemented in the presidential nomination system in Indonesia. This needs to be done as an effort to create a more democratic and open mechanism for the presidential nomination, as well as a solution to determine the figure of the presidential and vice presidential candidates who will be elected in the general election, who really have high electability in society. Therefore, it is necessary to revise the Election Law, especially those related to the mechanism for nominating the President and Vice President.</p> 2022-09-21T19:07:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE Effect of Managerial Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Debt Policy, Profitability and Company Size on Devidend Policy on Hospital and Tourism Service Companies Listed on The Indonesia Stock Exchange 2022-09-21T22:59:54+00:00 Sulimin Sulimin Nagian Toni Enda Noviyanti Simorangkir Galumbang Hutagalung <p>This study aims to determine and analyze the Effect of Managerial Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Debt Policy, Profitability, and Company Size on Policy Dividends on Hospitality and Tourism Service companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The research period 2017-2020, there are 15 companies. This type of research is causal associative. The population in this study is a hotel and tourism service company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The sampling method is census, so the number of samples used is 60 research sample data. Methods of data analysis using views 10 . The results show that institutional stock ownership, profitability and company size have a significant effect on dividend policy, while managerial ownership and debt policy have no effect on dividend policy in hospitality and tourism service companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.</p> 2022-09-21T19:26:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studying the Correlates of Adolescents’ Trust in the Police: A Conflict Theory Approach 2022-09-27T23:30:23+00:00 Ishak Celik Erlan Bakiev Mutlu Koseli <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examined high school students’ trust in police in from a conflict theory point of view by using Ungdata Vestland County package (N=7,796). Four models were tested by employing binary logistic regression analysis. Seven out of eight variables of conflict theory were significant to predict students’ trust in the police, but conflict theory alone accounted for a low level of variation in predicting trust in the police (5%). In Model 2, variables related to victimization, safety feelings, and antisocial behavior alone were significant in predicting students’ trust in police. &nbsp;This variable group happened to be two times more powerful to predict students’ trust in the police compared to conflict theory variables. The third model assessed the capacity of social capital variables to predict students’ trust in the police. Among social capital variables, school well-being, family relations, and quality of life were also significant predictors of students’ trust in the police. &nbsp;In the final model, when controlled with other related factors, the effect of conflict theory somewhat weakened but five out of eight variables were still strongly related to trust in the police and the final model accounted for a 15% variation in the trust in police. The significance of the study, theoretical and policy implications and future direction was discussed in advance. &nbsp;</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Optimization of Legal Enforcement and Protection Against Women Victims of Crime Threats (Revenge Porn) in Electronic Media 2022-09-28T23:34:26+00:00 Arief Budiono Dito Pratama Adi Sugiarto Zahira Shaharani Sofyan Wimbo Agung Pradnyawan <p style="text-align: justify;">Technological advances in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0 have a significant impact on the development of social life patterns. In addition, information and communication technology which is developing very rapidly also has a negative impact. Among them is the misuse of internet media as a means of revenge porn, which often occurs within the scope of society. The purpose of this research is to find out how the legal efforts taken by a country in providing legal protection to women who are victims of revenge pornography. The approach method used in this study is a descriptive normative juridical approach, using a statutory approach (State Approach). The data collection method used by the author is to use library research collection methods (library research). The data in this paper are sourced from revelation data and secondary data using qualitative analysis. Based on the results of the study, it is known that actions related to revenge porn can be seen from the production of intimate content which is carried out by recording without permission, hacking intimate content, manipulating content regarding resemblance to someone. So it can be concluded that efforts to provide protection to women victims of revenge porn have been regulated in Law no. 19 of 2016 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions, Law no. 44 of 2008 concerning Pornography, but this protection is still considered ineffective and there is not full protection regarding the losses received by the victim.</p> 2022-09-28T09:41:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Legality of Virtual Trials in the Indonesian Criminal Law System 2022-09-28T23:34:25+00:00 Arief Budiono Bagus Fakhri Utomo <p style="text-align: justify;">The existence of this pandemic certainly has an impact on several things, one of which is in the legal realm, namely trials that are conducted virtually or online. Therefore, in this paper, we will discuss the implementation of virtual trials in Indonesian criminal law with several problem formulations, namely how the mechanism is carried out in the application of virtual court law in overcoming all criminal problems that exist in Indonesia, then in this study will discuss about What legal basis underlies the implementation of this virtual trial in Indonesia when examined in the Indonesian criminal law system. This research uses a qualitative normative legal research type. Normative legal research is a legal research conducted in a way such as conducting research on library materials or secondary data. In this research, law is often conceptualized as something that is written in legislation or as a norm which is a benchmark for human activities that are considered appropriate. The results of this study are first, trial activities are also influenced by various problems due to the Covid-19 pandemic, namely in the criminal process on the grounds that the limited period of detention is the basis for the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia to establish a virtual trial in accordance with the Regulation of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia Number 1 Year 2019 on trial procedures but not in criminal justice.</p> 2022-09-28T09:49:58+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Distributed Leadership and Positive Behaviour Management in Ghanaian High Schools: Contextualisation of theory and practice 2022-09-28T23:34:25+00:00 Mohammed Gunu Ibrahim <p style="text-align: justify;">There is an increasing interest in school leadership's ability to maintain school discipline whilst protecting students' rights and dignity as well as self-esteem. The accelerating interest in school leadership's ability to maintain a disciplined school is anchored on the belief that school discipline determines student learning outcomes. Whilst there is the need for effective leadership behaviour to propel Positive Behaviour Management in Secondary is widely acknowledged, there is no accessible literature on the leadership behaviour which can produce the desired behaviour. This research aimed to explore the theoretical underpinning of Distributed Leadership and Positive Behaviour Management and the empirical evidence of using these concepts in developing successful schools. The findings of the research demonstrated that the link between Distributed Leadership and Positive Behaviour Management is positive and significant. This understanding has implications for how Positive Behaviour Management is conceptualized and implemented in schools by school leaders and teachers.</p> 2022-09-28T09:57:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## History of the Implementation and Development of the Criminal Law (KUHP) of the Dutch Colonial Heritage in Indonesia 2022-09-28T23:34:24+00:00 Wardah Yuspin Ajlin Ajlin <p style="text-align: justify;">This study uses a qualitative method with a historical approach. The purpose of this paper is to know the history of the development of the Indonesian Criminal Code, the benefit of this writing is to add insight into legal knowledge, the previous article only explained the history of the Criminal Code, while this article explains why the Dutch Criminal Code inherited from the Dutch colonial era was enacted in Indonesia, Talking about criminal law, of course we discuss about behavior that should be done and should not be done, criminal law is the whole of the regulations that determine what actions are prohibited which are included in criminal acts, as well as determine what penalties can be imposed on those who commit them, criminal law that applies in Indonesia is a Dutch colonial heritage which was formerly known as Wetboek van Strafrecht voor Netherlands Indie,After Indonesia's independence from the Dutch colony in 1945, Indonesia carried out the integration and codification of the Dutch Colonial heritage law into Wetboek van Strafrecht (WvS) which was later known as the Criminal Code, the basic reason for the enforcement of the colonial law was because Indonesia did not yet have written criminal law that is universally applicable in the country of Indonesia, the implementation of the criminal law of the Dutch colonial heritage is not something special for the Indonesian people because the criminal law is not made based on the characteristics of the Indonesian nation. , how is the problem of the Indonesian Criminal Codewhat is the problem with the Indonesian Criminal Code.</p> 2022-09-28T10:12:18+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Dominic Ongwen's Psychological Background: Childhood Traumatized and Its Correlation to the Brutal Crimes in Uganda 2022-09-28T23:34:24+00:00 Diana Setiawati Enno Haya Gladya Naranta <p>Dominic Ongwen was reported and became a suspect in the ICC trial for the heinous assault case of the Ugandan people. Dominic Ongwen with the background of a former child soldier can be projected as a relevant subject to analyze the psychology of crime. The research conducted by this author uses a descriptive type of research, which aims to enable the researcher to explain what it is about a legal event or legal condition. The analytical method used in this research is qualitative. In this paper, the author tries to analyze PTSD and its correlation to crimes against humanity that occurred in Uganda. Interference of an LRA commander, Dominic Ongwen, with acts of atrocities in attacks on Ugandan civilians. which is a controversial trial in this case, suspect Dominic Ongwen considers himself a hidden victim in the case that was brought to the ICC court. Conclusion the psychological causes of PTSD in Dominic Ongwen that resulted in the brutal assault he commanded in Uganda.</p> 2022-09-28T10:22:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of SaTRU (Tofu Filter) as a Tofu Liquid Waste Treatment Tool in Tinalan Village 2022-09-28T23:34:26+00:00 Yuli Agustina Diana Elisia Iqbal Ali Firdaus <p>The tofu processing industry in Tinalan, Pesantren Subdistrict, Kediri produces massive amounts of wastewater with high level of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The toxic substance in the wastewater can potentially endangers the environment in the long term. Government policy in the Ministry of Environment Regulation (Permen LH) No. 05 of 2014 concerning Quality Standards for Soybean Processing Business and/or Activities to minimize the impact of environmental pollution urges the society to take serious action to overcome these problems. In addition, the society also faces obstacles in the form of limited places to process waste. This then becomes a challenge for the government to provide processing facilities for the community while minimizing the impact on environmental sustainability. Reviewing these problems, the author has an innovation in the design of SaTRU (Biofilter as a Sustainable Utilization of Tofu Wastewater Treatment). SaTRU technology was chosen because of its high efficiency and installation that does not require large areas. This activity uses a quasi-experimental design with pretes-posttest design. The results showed that the filter with silica sand, zeolite and charcoal media was able to increase the pH level from 2 to pH 5 and had effectiveness in reducing the pollutant content in the water.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of Foreign Investment on the Indonesian Economy 2022-09-28T23:34:23+00:00 Wardah Yuspin Fadil Muhammad <p style="text-align: justify;">Law No. 25 of 2007 concerning Foreign Investment was created to have several objectives, in which these objectives function to advance the economy in this country of Indonesia. Basically, Foreign Investment is a form or concrete step which in practice provides many benefits to the Indonesian economy but also does not provide a small amount of loss in the economic sector and in other sectors. The purpose of writing this article is to examine more deeply from a legal perspective regarding the impacts of foreign investment on Indonesia's economic development.</p> 2022-09-28T11:33:32+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effectiveness of Legal Protection Against Women and Minors Victims of Sexual Harassment in Cyberspace 2022-09-28T23:34:22+00:00 Arief Budiono Anis Gaiyatri Aditya Ananda Pramandini Amara Dipta Galuh Styaningtyas Listyana Putri <p>With the enactment of the ITE Law, it cannot protect the whole community from the influence of pornography and cyber crime. Most of them make women and children as objects of sexual harassment. There are so many people who take advantage of technological advances to commit crimes as a money maker. For example, children who are weak individuals they use as sexual gratification and disseminate it on social media. Indonesia guarantees the growth of children with Law no. 35 of 2014 concerning Child Protection so that they can develop properly and optimally. The purpose of this research is to determine the effectiveness of the use, the factors of sexual harassment to children and women in Law.</p> 2022-09-28T11:43:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## History, Development of Commercial Law in Indonesia and Their Correlation with the Book of Civil Law 2022-09-28T23:34:22+00:00 Wardah Yuspin Nur Ilmi Putri Febriyanti <p style="text-align: justify;">This article discusses the history and development of commercial law in Indonesia and its correlation with the civil code law. This article uses literature research. Commercial law is the law that regulates the behavior of humans who participate in trading for profit or the law that regulates legal relations between humans and legal entities with each other in the trading field. Generally, the development of commercial law is divided into three stages, namely the lex mercatoria period in the Middle Ages, the incorporation of the lex mercatoria into the national legal system, and the new lex mercotaria period. In essence, lex mercotaria is a concept in Latin that is used to communicate a set of principles or principles that apply to traders in Europe in general. When viewed from the perspective of its function, lex mercotaria is actually an international trade law which, among other things, emphasizes the separation of assets and contractual freedom, applies to traders from various parts of the world who establish trade relations with the citizens of the kingdom along the route that crosses the boundaries of territorial sovereignty. . based on the principle of concordance, the KUHD Netherland 1838 became an example for the making of the Indonesian KUHD in 1848. Initially, commercial law was based on civil law. However, over time the commercial law codified the legal rules so that the Commercial Law Code was created which is now independent or can be said to be separate from the Civil Law Code. The Commercial Law Code has a relationship with the Civil Law Code as explained above that as a result of the codification, commercial law is part or a branch of civil law, but in a more specific form. Thus, the Civil Code becomes a special source of civil law. The relationship between the two laws is the genus (general) and species (special).</p> 2022-09-28T11:52:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Learning Strategies in Lifelong Learning 2022-10-03T23:36:45+00:00 Hur Mustafa Yucedal <p>The individual's interest in reading, thinking and analyzing to gain information for personal or professional reasons can be called lifelong learning. Learning for an individual begins in the family, develops in school, and continues throughout life. That is why learning is sustainable. To succeed in life, it is essential to be educated. To obtain new information, the individual must have a learning style and develop himself with strategies. In this article, the writer emphasizes the teachers' mission on teaching strategies and why learners need learning strategies in lifelong learning.</p> 2022-10-03T11:27:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##