International Journal of Social Science Research and Review 2023-11-29T21:17:39+00:00 Thomas Campbell Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management and&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;History</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> Adenan Kapau Gani: A Doctor in the Struggle of Indonesia’s Diplomacy (1945-1949) 2023-11-09T01:14:50+00:00 Diah Galuh Kusumarti Sariyatun Sariyatun Triana Rejekiningsih <p style="text-align: justify;">Adenan Kapau Gani is a doctor who has devoted almost his entire life to fighting for Indonesian independence. He is one of the nation's figures who has expertise in diplomacy, especially during the period of defending Indonesian independence. In this regard, this article intends to analyze: (1) the reasons behind dr. A. K. Gani's expertise in diplomacy; (2) the initial involvement of dr. A. K. Gani in the diplomatic struggle; (3) the contribution of dr. A. K. Gani in the diplomatic struggle during the period of defending Indonesian independence. The research method used in this case is historical, with stages which include heuristics, criticism, interpretation, and historiography. The results showed that Gani's proficiency in diplomacy was derived from his experience in the organization since he was a medical student. Gani's involvement in the diplomatic struggle began when he became the Resident of Palembang. He was involved in several negotiations with Japan and Sekutu to fight for people’s interests. Gani's role in the diplomatic struggle expanded when he became the Minister of Welfare for three cabinet terms. He was assigned as an Indonesian delegation representing the Indonesian Government in several conferences and negotiations to seek <em>de facto</em> and <em>de jure</em> recognition of Indonesian independence.</p> 2023-11-08T20:02:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Conduits of Political Corruption and Patronage in South African Government 2023-11-09T01:14:50+00:00 Sandiso Mahlala Lusanda Juta Lewis Chigova Abongile Zweni <p>Anecdotes of corruption and clear-cut lines of patronage in political parties and the government are frequently featured in South African newspapers and news media. Such graft and favouritism have institutionalised themselves more and more, resulting in the phenomenon of governmental capture and the diversion of Covid-19 relief monies. In order to further their own interests, political elites and those working in the public and private sectors influenced government decisions in this way. This paper presents examples of state capture, Covid-19 corruption, and patronage, as well as how these have a negative impact on broader governance and society at large. The fact that such corruption and patronage are occurring at a time when the South African economy is stagnating is particularly troubling since it implies that more people are getting less and raises concerns about the country's future political stability. This article further examines how party patronage as one method by which political parties exploit the state. The conceptual nature of the study is supported by a survey of the relevant literature from a range of sources, such as government regulations, media excepts, and scholarly works.</p> 2023-11-08T20:13:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## AI-Based Decision-Making on Business Strategy: A Review 2023-11-09T01:14:50+00:00 Nurdin Hidayah Agus Rahayu Puspo Dewi Dirgantari Lili Adi Wibowo <p style="text-align: justify;">This scientific article discusses the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in business decision-making and current challenges. The study used systematic literature review methods from reputable databases to review the latest developments in AI-based decision-making and their impact on current business strategies. The results of this study show that AI-based decision-making can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business strategies, and businesses need to consider implementing them carefully. The risks of AI-based decision-making are related to ethical, openness, and fairness issues in managing the impact of decisions taken by businesspeople. This article examines some of the challenges and opportunities businesses face in implementing AI-based decision-making that researchers have not previously explored. A practical implication of this study is that companies that use AI in business decision-making can gain significant competitive advantages, such as increasing efficiency and productivity, reducing operational costs, and increasing customer satisfaction.</p> 2023-11-08T20:22:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Preparedness of Employees for the New World of Work in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Evidence from South Africa 2023-11-09T01:14:50+00:00 Patricia Thokozani Kunene Thokozani Ian Nzimakwe Reward Utete <p style="text-align: justify;">The Fourth Industrial Revolution has become popula around the globe and in almost every industry. Thus, it is set to influence every aspect of the business. While previous theoretical and empirical work documents trends of industrial revoultion, the preparedness of employees for the new world in the Fourth Industrial Revolution remains unchartered territory. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to explore the prepareness of employees for the world of work in the Fourth Industrial Revolution with eThekwini Municipality in South Africa serving as a case study. The qualitative research methodology was selected as a preferred approach because it reinforces an understanding and interpretation of the meaning as well as the intentions underlying human interactions. A cross-sectional research design was used in the study. A final sample size used for this study consisted 10 respondents within the municipality. The findings of the study indicated that both the organisation and its workforce are not adequately prepare for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The research findings provide the leadership and management of the eThekwini Municipality in South Africa with an understanding of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the importance of preparing employees for the new world of work.</p> 2023-11-08T21:21:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Examining the Effectiveness of Database Recruitment of Unemployed Educators in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2023-11-09T01:14:50+00:00 Msawenkosi Sandile Mbokazi Lazarus Donald Mokula Lebeloane Rachel Gugu Mkhasibe <p style="text-align: justify;">Thousands of Education students complete their first degrees to be professionally qualified educators. They join the education sector each year with great anticipation of finding employment as practicing educators with an aim of improving their families’ lives. Finding employment has turned out to be a serious problem. Most unemployed qualified educators are depressed and tormented by anxiety. The study investigated the challenges faced by professionally qualified graduates with the current recruitment process in South Africa. The study undertook a mixed-methods approach, utilising both the survey and telephonic interviews as data collection tools with forty-four (44) unemployed qualified educators (UQEs) and thirty-seven (37) school principals. Frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the quantitative data and the content analysis technique was employed to analyse qualitative data. Findings revealed that both unemployed qualified educators and school principals are dissatisfied with the current recruitment process. It further emerged that school principals and their school governing bodies were not involved in the recruitment and employment of post-level 1 educators. That is breach of Chapter 3, Section 3(a) of the Employment of Educators Act, Act 76 of 1998. The study recommends that school principals should have access to the database to select suitably qualified educators for interviews and recommendations for appointment to the Head of Department.</p> 2023-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring Student Perceptions of Engagement in Online Learning within Higher Education Institutions: A Comprehensive Systematic Review 2023-11-09T01:14:51+00:00 Nthabiseng Khoalenyane Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani <p style="text-align: justify;">The expansion of online learning in higher education has fundamentally changed how students engage with education. This systematic review aims to uncover students' perceptions of engagement in online learning. Synthesising diverse research provides a comprehensive understanding of factors shaping student viewpoints and interactions. The review examines perceptions, challenges, strategies, and implications of engagement, significantly enhancing online learning environments. The study adopted social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework to provide an understanding of the phenomenon. Methodologically, the review employs a rigorous approach, searching critical databases for relevant articles. Factors influencing engagement emerge, including student-centred design, seamless technology integration, collaborative interactions, intrinsic motivation, and timely feedback. Challenges, such as technical issues and time management, are also revealed, impacting engagement. Effective strategies are identified, encompassing active learning, personalised pathways, virtual communities, transparent communication, and continuous feedback. Implications extend to educational practice and policy, emphasising the need to address challenges, optimise strategies, and create dynamic online ecosystems aligned with student needs. The review emphasises the policy discourse's role in fostering engagement and effective online education strategies. In conclusion, this systematic review analyses student perceptions regarding engagement in online higher education. It explores factors, challenges, strategies, and implications, serving as a valuable resource for lecturers, researchers, and policymakers seeking to enhance online learning and promote student success in the digital age.</p> 2023-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Perceived Infant Feeding Patterns in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Postpartum Programmes: A Mix-method Study of Nurses, Lay Counsellors and Community Health Workers in the Rural Limpopo Province, South Africa 2023-11-09T01:14:51+00:00 Refilwe Ramoshaba <p style="text-align: justify;">Mothers` adherence to infant feeding instructions is a major challenge for healthcare workers in the Prevention Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Postpartum programmes. Healthcare workers` infant feeding counselling and support is very important to the success of the PMTCT programmes. Hence, this paper explores healthcare workers` perceptions on infant feeding patterns of mothers living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the PMTCT postpartum programmes. The study applied both qualitative and quantitative approaches, a phenomenological and cross-sectional design respectively. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Community Health Workers (CHWs) in two health facilities in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo province of South Africa. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with a total population of 40 nurses and lay counsellors responsible for the implementation of PMTCT programmes in five selected health facilities in the Mopani and Capricorn District of the Limpopo province, South Africa. The findings show that CHWs believe that breastfeeding is important for HIV positive mothers and their infants. However, the CHWs believe that HIV positive mothers are mix feeding their infants with porridge, breast milk and formula milk. The CHWs struggle to monitor if mothers are following the recommended feeding methods at their homes. The CHWs maintains that mothers mix feed because their babies bite them on their breasts during breastfeeding, and other runs out of money to buy formula milk and have to wait until they get money to buy formula milk. The nurses and lay counsellors believe that the challenges that mothers experience with infant feeding is mix-feeding (80%), confusion and lack of knowledge (45%) and non-adherence to treatment (40%). Unsafe infant feeding practices can lead to Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT). Proper promotion of safe infant feeding needs to be emphasised through on-going awareness campaigns that provide quality information on recommended infant feeding practices. Workshops and campaigns that promote exclusive breastfeeding will demonstrate more effective ways of preventing new paediatric infections especially in rural settings.</p> 2023-11-08T22:19:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Managing Technology Transformations: An Exploration of the Organizational Development (OD) Framework 2023-11-09T01:14:51+00:00 Anuja Ugale Siddhartha Paul Tiwari <p style="text-align: justify;">Due to the constant evolution of products, services, and business models, a flexible and responsive approach is essential in the dynamic field of technology. In this paper, the author explains how Organizational Development (OD) serves as a guiding principle for technology companies as they navigate significant changes in their operational paradigms. Paradigm shifts are often driven by microeconomic and macroeconomic factors that have a direct impact on the environment of the organization. The expectations of customers and the requirements of partners in the supply chain of a business may change when new business models are adopted. An increasing body of evidence suggests that organisations must understand their business processes, how to modify them, the consequences for their embedded systems, and the constraints imposed by such systems in order to adapt to change on the basis of changes in business process paradigms. Research indicates that constant feedback loops, stakeholder management, and systems thinking are crucial components of OD transformations in technology companies. In this paper, OD is presented as a valuable tool for ensuring a seamless evolution of tech organizations in an ever-changing environment for tech leaders, researchers, strategists, change agents and academicians.</p> 2023-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Challenges Faced by Taxpayer on Using Electronic Fiscal Devices:A Case Study of Kigoma Region 2023-11-09T01:14:51+00:00 Makilo Seuta Lukurunge Gwahula Raphael <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was carried out to assess the challenges faced by taxpayers in using EFDs in Tanzania. The study used descriptive case study design while sampling technique used was simple random sampling technique. The technique led to selection of 96 respondents. Data collection methods used in the study were questionnaire method and documentary review. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used in analyzing data in the study. Firstly, the findings show that individual-related challenges, including low level of education and lack of experience in using EFD machines, negatively affect the usage of EFDs among taxpayers. Secondly, are the findings regarding EFDs related challenges like high price of the devices, lack of availability, the difficulty of use and network problems) have a negative effect on the usage of EFDs among taxpayers. &nbsp;Further findings revealed that business location and size of business-related challenges have a negative effect on the usage of EFDs among taxpayers. It is recommended that there is a need for reviewing prices of electronic fiscal devices, there is a need for the Tanzania Revenue Authority to establish education programs to taxpayers on using EFDs, and there is a need for providing education to taxpayers on using EFDs.</p> 2023-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Grassroots Non-Governmental Organizations and the Fight against HIV/AIDS in South Africa 2023-11-09T01:14:51+00:00 Robert Mutemi Kajiita Simon Murote Kang'ethe <p style="text-align: justify;">To win the battle against HIV/AIDS in South Africa the participation of multiple stakeholders such as the government, NGOs, medical practitioners, researchers, patients, and significant others is of paramount importance. This paper aimed at discussing pertinent efforts and limitations of grassroots health-based NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS in South Africa. A qualitative approach was adopted, and interviews were used to collect the data. The study established that: grassroots NGOs pressurized the government to respond to HIV/AIDS menace; the International NGOs were perceived to be more impactful in the fight against HIV/AIDS, and volunteers were the ‘human resource engine’ for grassroots health-based NGOs in the study area. Conclusively, grassroots health-based NGOs, albeit size, are unequivocally gap fillers and supplements of the governments’ efforts in various operations to achieve a HIV/AIDS-free society.</p> 2023-11-08T23:26:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study on the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court Over the Crime of Aggression 2023-11-09T01:14:51+00:00 Geng Zhimin <p style="text-align: justify;">The jurisdiction of the crime of aggression involves an important topic in the field of international criminal law, that is, how to determine which country has the right to try and pursue criminal responsibility for individuals or groups involved in the crime of aggression. As the crime of aggression is a serious international crime, the determination of its jurisdiction should take into account international law, international criminal law, national sovereignty and other factors. Based on this, this paper will focus on the relevant issues of the jurisdiction of the crime of aggression by the International Criminal Court, and discuss the jurisdiction issues of the crime of aggression from multiple perspectives such as jurisprudence, international practice and relevant international treaties, in order to provide some useful thinking and suggestions for the international community.</p> 2023-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Covid-19 on Sustainable Development Goal Four in South Africa 2023-11-09T01:14:51+00:00 C Mbatha Shikha Vyas-Doorgapersad <p style="text-align: justify;">The study reviewed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on South Africa's ability to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4). The qualitative research approach is utilised. The study is based on secondary data using literature review. The study aims to find answers to the research question, such as: ‘what is the effect of COVID-19 on the education system in South Africa?’ Data analysis is done through conceptual analysis. The findings indicate various challenges that hamper the effective implementation of SDG 4 in South African context. Furthermore, recommendations are offered for improvement. The findings of the study explored that many students were mentally disturbed due to the trauma that affected them and the country. The state and the departments failed to decide on a strategy quickly enough to save lives and failed to maintain the syllabus of primary, secondary, and higher education. Due to the high death rate, schools and high education institutions closed, delaying the syllabus, resulting in poor performance and a high dropout rate that negatively impacted pass rates. Therefore, the study suggests that the SDG4 needs more budgets to meet incoming challenges and even future planning for any pestilence that might take place.</p> 2023-11-09T00:02:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring Middle School Mathematics Teachers’ Approaches to Instruction and Assessment 2023-11-09T01:14:52+00:00 Bianca Croutch Richard Penny Michelle McCraney <p>U.S. middle school teachers have struggled to meet the instructional needs of students in the area of mathematics. Teachers’ approaches to assessment and instructional strategies remain understudied; such knowledge could help educational leaders to devise strategies to boost student achievement. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine teachers’ perceptions of assessment data usage and instructional strategies used in middle school mathematics. The conceptual framework was based on Fullan et al.’s three Ps (precision, personalization, and professional learning) framework. The guiding research questions for this study concerned teachers’ perceptions of assessment usage and instructional strategies and their considerations prior to assessment and strategy implementation. This study was conducted in the basic qualitative tradition. Eight middle school mathematics teachers were recruited using criterion sampling. Individual interviews were conducted to gain insight regarding participants’ perceptions of assessment usage and instructional strategies. Thematic analysis yielded six themes regarding the adequacy of time for analyzing data results, the realization that stakeholder input enhances classroom success, the use of varied instructional strategies, the use of data to support personalized instruction and to better understand students, and the implementation of instructional duties with fidelity. This study contributes knowledge regarding mathematics teachers' use of assessment data to improve instructional delivery and assessment. Study findings may inform classroom teachers' professional development in assessment data usage and instructional strategies. With such knowledge, teachers may have greater agency and be better able to increase student achievement.</p> 2023-11-09T00:31:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Organisational Cultural Factors and Barriers Affecting Women's Career Success at a Selected Institution of Higher Learning in South Africa 2023-11-23T11:40:13+00:00 N Sahumani B K Majola H Ngirande <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper aims to identify organisational cultural factors and barriers that affect women's career success at the University of Limpopo in South Africa. In developed and developing countries, women of all races were marginalised for decades based on their gender, class, and level of education. After 1994, South Africa introduced prescripts such as the new Constitution (108/1996) and Employment Equity Act (55/1998) to redress past imbalances and to empower women. Nonetheless, after almost three decades, women are still underrepresented in senior management positions and academia, with no exception from other sectors. Women aspiring to occupy management positions are expected to work twice as hard as their male counterparts. Besides various barriers, organisational culture plays a supportive role in modifying women's career success. The paper adopts a correlational non-experimental research design and a quantitative approach. The convenience sampling method was used to select 70 women academics from all levels of a lectureship in the Faculty of Management and Law at the University of Limpopo to complete an online structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 28.0. The results show a significant relationship between organisational cultural factors and women's career success. However, no relationship was found between career barriers and women's career success. The results revealed that women still experience barriers such as the glass ceiling and gender stereotyping in their career progression. The paper recommends reviewing employment policies and adopting strategies and programmes, including mentorship, to influence organisational cultural change and remove barriers for the benefit of women's career success.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Legal Review Regarding Commandeering Infectious Diseases in West Kutai District, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia 2023-11-09T01:14:52+00:00 Fatimah Asyari <p style="text-align: justify;">Nowadays, various parts of the world are faced with increasingly large and complex health problems, one of which is the problem of epidemiological transition. Epidemiological transition or change in disease patterns is a situation where disease patterns change, where currently infectious diseases are still not well resolved, but on the other hand, non-communicable diseases continue to increase. If this happens, guidelines are needed that have a legal basis for handling outbreaks made by the local government. The aim of the research is to analyze the problems faced in controlling infectious diseases in West Kutai Regency; and to formulate the legal problems faced as a basis for establishing a legal basis for problem solving in the Management of Infectious Diseases in West Kutai Regency. The research was carried out from August to October 2021 in West Kutai Regency. This research uses legal research methods, namely by conducting Normative Juridical and Empirical Juridical legal research. The stages of research activities are: (1) identifying problems, (2) field observations, (3) inventory of legal materials needed related to the control of infectious diseases, (4) analysis of legal materials; (5) data collection; (6) data analysis; and (7) reporting. The results of the research show that: The problems faced in the Management of Infectious Diseases in West Regency are as follows: (a) disease prevention and control activities in health facilities are not yet optimal, (b) there is still limited and uneven provision and distribution of health workers, (c) there is still low public awareness of implementing healthy lifestyle patterns, especially sanitation and a healthy environment, (d) it is still difficult to collaborate with companies in finding cases of Infectious Diseases that can cause outbreaks, and (e) there are no special Isolation/Quarantine/Rehabilitation facilities; (2) efforts that have been made to control infectious diseases in West Kutai Regency, namely: (a) counseling, (b) distribution of filariasis drugs, (c) technical guidance, (d) cross-sector coordination, (e) establishing cooperation with companies ; (3) the impact of implementing regulations regarding the control of infectious diseases in West Kutai Regency will directly or indirectly affect aspects of community life such as poverty, strengthening primary services, community behavior and government policies; and (4) regulations need to be made as the basis and legal basis for problem solving in the Management of Infectious Diseases in West Kutai Regency.</p> 2023-11-09T00:49:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dhoho Street Fashion (DSF): The Government Marketing Methods to Introduce Tenun Ikat Bandar Kidul Kediri 2023-11-09T01:14:52+00:00 Aji Prasojo Sudarmiatin Sudarmiatin Ludi Wishnu Wardana <p style="text-align: justify;">The Government in kediri city is trying to introduce tebun ikat bandar kidul through dhoho street fashion which is held every year. Tenun ikat bandar kidul has its own uniqueness by reflecting culture, tourism and the condition of the people of the kediri city. The unique manufacturing technique and the motifs and colors that reflect the identity of kediri have made tenun ikat bandar kidul the eyes of the world's fashion eyes. The method for carrying out the research used an interview approach, direct observation of tenun ikat bandar kidul entreprenuers and dhoho street fashion activities, as well as documentation, Dhoho street fashion aims to encorage people to become familiar with tenun ikat bandar kidul product with the hope that people can wear clothes made from the traditional fabricts of tenun ikat bandar kidul.</p> 2023-11-09T01:01:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Empowering Rural Women through Tourism Entrepreneurship: The Case of the Annual Berlin November Horse Racing in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa 2023-11-09T01:26:20+00:00 Xolisile Gideon Ngumbela <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this paper is to look into how the annual Berlin November horse racing event strategically contribute to women empowerment through entrepreneurship and socio economic growth in the Eastern Cape Province. The study's major goal was to explore and describe the use of SMMEs as a strategic tool for women's empowerment by government, as well as to identify factors influencing the usage and assess how they affect the use of SMMEs as a strategic tool for women's empowerment. Fifteen individuals working as SMME’s were identified using purposive sampling. Participants who answered the semi-structured interview questions knew a lot about the tourism sector. The study's findings demonstrate that rural women SMMEs are mostly influenced by external variables, but that a lack of sufficient training and entrepreneurial education has an impact on their day to day operations of their enterprises. The study's findings point to the relevance of rural development, hospitality management, and SMME development in sustaining rural people's livelihoods. The study suggests that the South African government and other stakeholders provide financial assistance to rural residents so that they can develop to feed their families.</p> 2023-11-09T01:26:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Examining the Role of Student Representative Council (SRC) on Student’s Well-being at the Higher Education Institution 2023-11-09T01:38:29+00:00 Mathibedi Frank Kgarose Fhedzisani Mudau Keletso Nkejane Magatane Tswarelo Mashilo <p style="text-align: justify;">Students as a political constituency have always been admired, acknowledged, and feared for their adopted political views and campaigns they engage in. This has been the case since 1976 when students in Soweto went to the streets in direct defiance of the apartheid regime. In Higher Education Institutions (HEI), Student Representative Council (SRC) is entrusted with the primary responsibility of representing, overseeing, and managing academic concerns for students. In other words, they serve as student leaders and representatives on institutional committees and councils to champion the interests of students. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of SRC in enhancing student well-being at institutions of higher learning. The research draws upon existing literature reviews of scholarly articles, reports, and published studies. It is solely a desktop study. The paper highlights the significant contributions of SRCs to the overall well-being of students at institutions of higher learning, through advocacy, engagement, and policy involvement. This paper recommends continued recognition of SRC at the HEIs and the important role they play in creating a platform to effectively address students’ needs which contributes to a positive and thriving campus environment.</p> 2023-11-09T01:38:29+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determinants of Unauthorised Absenteeism at a Public Academic Hospital: The Narratives of Public Hospital Managers 2023-11-14T22:25:01+00:00 Mphoreng Magdeline Mmako Tshepo Lucky Ngwato <p style="text-align: justify;">High unauthorised absenteeism rates have adverse impact for the public hospitals. In cognisance the determinants of unauthorised absenteeism, thus, persists a pivotal apprehension for the public hospitals. The study employed an inclusive cross-sectional, qualitative design. The semi-structured interviews were administered to collect data from middle managers and supervisors in a public academic hospital. A thematic analysis approach was observed to analyse the collected data. The qualitative thematic data analysis revealed excessive workload, financial constraints, family issues and responsibilities, low staff morale, and alcohol and drug abuse as determinants of unauthorised absenteeism. The study proposes managers’ perception of the essence of unauthorised absenteeism.&nbsp; The outcomes also have compelling inferences for top management and human resource practitioners. They may utilise these details to analyse how unauthorised absenteeism is managed. Furthermore, the information could be used to evolve positive working conditions purposely to increase staff levels and implementing financial wellness programs. Management could use the results through the implementation of a Performance Development System to motivate employees to fulfill at their ideal level and develop Human Resource policies and procedures for absenteeism for alcohol and substance abuse reduction. The results will add value to the discipline of absenteeism in conjunction with the advancing economy and culminate the pragmatic considerations for middle managers and supervisors and Human Resource practitioners.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reconciling the Neoclassical Model of Economic Convergence with the Complexities of German Reunification 2023-11-16T00:22:12+00:00 Thomas Henry Rikkerink <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Considering post reunification productivity differences between East and West Germany, this paper seeks to evaluate the explanatory power of the neoclassical model of convergence. This is achieved by considering two materialised deviations from the theoretical model: accelerated convergence in the 1990s and subsequent stagnation of convergence. The paper explores the exogenous factors including federal policies, the Treuhandanstalt, supply chain structures and competition intensity which may account for these differences to reach a final evaluation of the accuracy of the neoclassical model. This paper ultimately concludes that the explanations of the neoclassical model can be convincingly defended for the 1990s but that the model, even when accounting for exogenous influences, holds little explanatory power regarding the subsequent Eastern productivity stagnation.</span></p> 2023-11-16T00:18:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Managing Talent in Entrepreneurial Learning Ventures: Comparison of the Effectiveness of Different Teaching Methods in Entrepreneurship Education 2023-11-16T20:49:56+00:00 Ayansola Olatunji Ayandibu Elizabeth Oluwakemi Ayandibu <p style="text-align: justify;">The study aims to investigate the impact of different teaching methods on the development of entrepreneurial competencies and the successful management of talent in entrepreneurial learning ventures. The research will involve the implementation of different teaching methods, including lectures, case studies, experiential learning, and coaching, to a group of students engaged in entrepreneurial learning ventures Evaluating the sustainable development goals that can be linked to entrepreneurship. The methodology used for this research is action research, which involves a cyclical process of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting on the outcomes. Also, scoping literature review was employed. The findings of this research will contribute to the existing literature on entrepreneurship education and provide insights into the effectiveness of different teaching methods in managing talent in entrepreneurial learning ventures. The effectiveness of each teaching method was evaluated based on the development of the students' entrepreneurial competencies, the growth of their ventures, and the successful management of talent in their ventures. This study aims to provide practical recommendations for educators and practitioners to enhance entrepreneurship education and promote the successful management of talent in entrepreneurial ventures. This paper is limited to the experience of the author within the last 10 years and also literature on the teaching methods that have been used and accessed by the author while lecturing entrepreneurship at different levels. This paper helped to identify challenges, inform local practice, build a community practice, solve a problem(s) and also inform best practices in managing talents in the entrepreneurial world. This will help other practitioners to understand and see how things can be done differently so as to promote good talent management in entrepreneurship.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-16T20:49:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Research Methodology Choices of Female Postgraduate Students in the Gauteng Province of South Africa 2023-11-23T11:52:39+00:00 Onoriode Collins Potokri <p style="text-align: justify;">This study investigated the research methodology choices of female postgraduate students, and the influencers of their choices. A quantitative descriptive survey research design was adopted. Thirty-six respondents from four universities in the Gauteng province, South Africa participated in the study. A closed-ended questionnaire was designed and sent out via email to the identified respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The study’s findings revealed that the respondents’ preferred research methodology was qualitative. Quantitative methodology was revealed to be the ‘methodological underdog’ because it is the least preferred choice. Nine factors were revealed to be the influencers of their choice. These were: (1) the supervisor’s methodology choice, (2) the student’s perceived ease and comfort in using the methodology, (3) the faculty/department’s preferred methodology, (4) the student’s friends and colleagues’ choice, (5) previously used methodology, (6) the career and lived experiences of the student, (7) the institution’s organised/taught research methodology modules, (8) readings and review of the relevant literature, and (9) anticipated publication outlets. Of all of these, most of the respondents designated their institution’s organised/taught research methodology modules as the top influencing factor of their choice. In line with the findings, a conclusion was reached and recommendations were made.</p> 2023-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Legal Review of the Existence of Komura Workers in the Omnibuslaw Law in Samarinda City 2023-11-16T22:23:46+00:00 Ekawati Ekawati <p style="text-align: justify;">The government has failed to absorb aspirations and involve the public in determining regulations governing employment, resulting in a lot of arbitrary treatment by companies or other business entities to their workers. The research aims to determine the influence of the OMNIBUSLAW Law on KOMURA workers in Samarinda City and the existence of KOMURA workers in Samarinda City before the OMNIBUSLAW Law was enacted.&nbsp; This study used quantitative descriptive methods with primary, secondary, and tertiary legal sources. The results showed that the Job Creation Law or OMNIBUSLAW had no effect on the Samudra Sejahtera Cooperative (KOMURA) because Komura was very concerned about occupational safety and health issues for every Komura worker was required to attend Occupational Health Safety (K3) training and in terms of Welfare Komura was also very concerned in paying attention to each of its workers starting from work wages, health benefits,&nbsp; Holiday Allowance, Scholarship for children of Komura workers and Old Age Insurance Program.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Higher Educational Institutions towards Entrepreneurship 2023-11-16T22:37:23+00:00 Thobile Nokuthula Radebe Sipho David Nkonde Victor H Mlambo Sbonelo Gift Ndlovu <p>This article encapsulated to review the modern university in intensifying and revisiting their role towards entrepreneurship. A systematic literature review method was followed. Where 27 journal articles were included, from the period of 2010 to 2022. The review of the articles highlights three topics in question for this study: emerging societal challenges (in need of urgent solutions), historical responses of HEIs towards entrepreneurship, and re-imagining entrepreneurship for HEIs. The analysis of the topics makes available areas for HEIs and governments to consider in redesigning their strategies and policies for entrepreneurship advancement in the current lifetime.</p> 2023-11-16T22:37:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Social Media Usage on Market Share of SMEs in uMhlathuze Municipality 2023-11-20T12:10:24+00:00 Zikhali SN Ayandibu A O <p style="text-align: justify;">The engagement of social media in small businesses is penetrating and growing rapidly for goods and services for both small medium businesses and customers. Social media is an effective platform for businesses to capitalize in advancement of profits and increase in market share through promoting small medium enterprises (SMEs) based on network abilities, image conversion, and personal extensibilities in the market. Notwithstanding plausible prominence however, the influence of social media usage on business performance remains less understood in empirical terms. Therefore, it is in contradiction of this background that this paper seeks to examine the significance of social media usage on the increase of market share for SMEs in uMhlathuze Municipality. This study investigated the effect of social media usage on the increase of market share for SMEs in uMhlathuze Municipality located within KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa using primary data and to achieve this objective, a survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire administered. Furthermore, a common approach in earlier studies treats market share as a continuous variable in a linear regression framework. The findings reveal a positive and significant association between social media usage and market share using an ordered logit model.&nbsp; Though the results were encouraging but not all the SMEs use social media for selling and advertising.</p> 2023-11-17T18:50:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Investigation of Cultural Expectations and Standards as Contributors to Domestic Violence Perpetuated Against Men: A Case Study of Limpopo Province 2023-11-17T21:50:52+00:00 Sabelinah M Tshoane Adewale A Olutola Paul O Bello Jacob T Mofokeng <p style="text-align: justify;">Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem, a major global concern, and an obstacle to social and economic progress in the developing regions of the world (South Africa not exempted). Generally, Intimate Partner Violence occurs in the private sphere of the family and poses serious risks to human beings and the broader society. This article was prompted by the paucity of data to address the growing problem of IPV against men in Limpopo province of South Africa, particularly the narrow focus on cultural norms and standard towards men. It also examines the impact of cultural values on IPV against men. Furthermore, the article evaluates what changes may be implemented within cultural norms and standards to include male as victims of domestic violence. To get a thorough understanding of the impacts and implications of cultural norms and standards imposed on men, this article employed a qualitative research method to garner men's perceptions of IPV, which enables an in-depth understanding of how cultural norms and standards perpetuate IPV against men. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with ten members of the House of Traditional Leaders. Findings indicate that instances of Intimate Partner Violence against men in Limpopo province are primarily influenced by the norms, values, language, and other cultural factors that are like the dust in the air that surrounds everyone. In addition, the article argues that IPV against males can be reduced by societal education and greater research that can influence culturally effective strategies to combat IPV against men.</p> 2023-11-17T21:50:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mitigating Express Takeovers and Unrest in South Africa: Centralised Predictive Capability and the Use of Advanced Analytics 2023-11-21T17:44:41+00:00 Alex Mitchell Juanida Horne <p style="text-align: justify;">In July 2021 South Africa saw a wave of civil unrest and widespread looting in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng as a result of former president Jacob Zuma's imprisonment. The July 2021 protests, also known as “the Zuma unrest”, showed a number of flaws in the South African government's machinery, particularly crime intelligence's inability to foresee the riots by means of actionable intelligence. This was confirmed by media reports, Police Minister Bheki Cele and former Defence Minister Nosiviwe Mapisa Nqakula (Felix, 2022; Stoltlz, 2021). Political meddling and corruption are some of the causes of the failure and incompetence of intelligence, and the appalling crime control capacities of the South African Police Service (Burger, 2013). The Zuma unrest has, if anything, called attention to a very unsettling fact, namely that the police lacks the expertise, training and resources to quell such a large-scale insurrection. The Zuma unrest has also highlighted another crucial fact: there is no strategy or collective capability to deal with such a threat. These weaknesses were evident at a micro level in the months following the Zuma unrest when commercial centres in the provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga in South Africa experienced express takeovers. Opportunistic criminals became aware of the police’s serious reaction shortcomings and their inability to control sizable groups and identify new crime opportunities. The Zuma unrest was nothing more than a learning curve for shopping centre looters. Express takeovers are not a new phenomenon in South Africa, but the change in criminals’ modus operandi is cause for concern, particularly in light of the current political climate and the well-coordinated, rage-filled, violent and unrestrained criminal behaviour. It is against this backdrop that this article examines mitigating express takeovers and unrest in South Africa. In doing so, it engages a centralised predictive capability and the use of advanced analytics to mitigate the severe consequences of express takeovers, safeguard the banking industry, and protect the economy and social systems of South Africa.</p> 2023-11-17T22:30:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Individual Accounts of Workplace Bullying Incidents from Indigenous, Contextualised Perspective 2023-11-20T21:40:37+00:00 Fumani Donald Mabasa Tlou Samuel Setati Harriet Rivalani Maluka Andani Nethavhani <p style="text-align: justify;">Workplace bullying because of its complexity and the many labels and words that researchers, the media, and the public use to describe the behaviour, workplace bullying is a complex and pervasive phenomenon that has grown difficult to comprehend as an organisational phenomenon. Bullying at work is a constant possibility in settings where people engage frequently. Bullying in the workplace is now a common occurrence that, when overlooked, can lead to serious issues. This study endeavoured to identify shared themes from individual accounts of workplace bullying incidents, from an African indigenous perspective with not predominantly continuation of the work from Western countries. This empirical study was conducted in Limpopo province and grounded theory was used as a methodological strategy with twenty-one indigenous research participants selected using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to generate data with the support of an interview guide. However, interviews were recorded using a cell phone recorder, transcribed, coded, and analysed using Microsoft Excel and interpreted. The findings of the study were analysed using content analysis. The findings of the study identified nine accounts of bullying behaviour. These are disrespect, rumours or bad-mouthing, name-calling, threats, unfair treatment, yelling to cause public humiliation, infringement of rights, work overload and domineering. The study recommends that anti-bullying policies can play a significant role in combating workplace bullying.</p> 2023-11-20T14:07:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Online Learning Environments in Higher Education: Nexus Between Self-Directed Learning and Learning Attainment in Students’ Online Learning Engagement 2023-11-21T22:09:34+00:00 Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani Mncedisi Christian Maphalala <p style="text-align: justify;">The rapid expansion of online learning environments in higher education has transformed how students access and engage with educational content. This study explores the intricate relationship between self-directed learning and learning attainment within these digital contexts. By examining how students' self-directed learning behaviours influence their academic success online, this research sheds light on the pivotal role of self-regulation, autonomy, and engagement in contemporary higher education. This study investigates the theoretical foundations underpinning self-directed learning and its implications for students' online learning engagement through a systematic literature review. Drawing upon the situated expectancy-value theory, the research delves into the mediating factors that may impact the effectiveness of self-directed learning strategies. Furthermore, it explores how academics and institutions can support and foster self-directed learning on online platforms. The findings of this study reveal that self-directed learning plays a crucial role in students' online learning experiences, leading to higher learning attainment. Students who exhibit self-regulation, effective time management, and metacognitive skills in their online studies are more likely to succeed academically. Academics and institutions are encouraged to design online courses that promote self-directed learning by enhancing student autonomy, providing opportunities for reflection, and encouraging active student participation. In conclusion, this research contributes valuable insights into the nexus between self-directed learning and learning attainment in online learning environments in higher education. It highlights the importance of empowering students to take control of their learning journey, ultimately enhancing their academic achievements in digital educational settings.</p> 2023-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Long-Term Alternative Strategies for Implementation in Water-Stressed Informal Settlements: A Case Study of Skiti in Mnquma Local Municipality 2023-11-21T23:07:08+00:00 T. C. Maramura A Mena S Mahlala <p style="text-align: justify;">This study seeks to improve water service provision in informal settlements and ensuring universal access to water by implementing sustainable strategies. South Africa has proposed several policies to alleviate water scarcity in informal settlements to ensure that individuals receive potable water. However, water provision challenges are underpinning the Amathole District Municipality, and water provision in the Mnquma Local Municipality has been unsatisfactory, particularly in informal settlements, even before Covid-19. Interview and focus- groups were employed to collect data and thematic analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The study purposefully selected a sample from the Skiti informal settlement in Butterworth, an area that is currently facing water challenges. A sample of fifteen (N=15) participants were used for this study. Ten are community members and the remaining five are officials from the Mnquma Local Municipality. The study provided the findings and recommendations to help the Mnquma Local Municipality to improve water service provision in informal settlements.</p> 2023-11-21T23:07:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Existence of Bale Mediasi in Grassroots Dispute Resolution: A Study of Mediation Policy in Nusa Tenggara Barat 2023-11-22T00:25:53+00:00 Wiredarme Wiredarme M. Zainul Muttaqin <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this article is to examine more deeply the practice of mediation based on the local wisdom of the Sasak community through&nbsp;<em>Bale Mediasi</em>. This research is qualitative research with a combination approach of literature study and normative-empirical law. Data sources come from various kinds of literature and regulations. The results show that <em>Bale Mediasi</em> formation is influenced by organizational, political, and fiscal decentralization factors, which has opened up opportunities for formulating regulations at the regional level that are per the local wisdom of the community and do not conflict with the policy products above. Internal and external factors influence the mediation policy in NTB Province. Internal factors come from various regulatory developments in the government system. Meanwhile, external factors refer to the dynamics of local communities.</p> 2023-11-22T00:25:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Improving The Methodology of Programmatic and Comprehensive Acquisition of Mechanical Transmissions in the Framework of Innovative, Integrated and Technological Education 2023-11-29T18:58:40+00:00 Abdimital Nabiev Sharifa Khaydarova Dildora Saidova <p style="text-align: justify;">This scientific work provides information about the improving the methodology of programmatic and comprehensive acquisition of mechanical transmissions in the framework of innovative, integrated and technological education.</p> 2023-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic on the Indicators of the End Tuberculosis Strategy: A Literature Review 2023-11-29T19:09:40+00:00 Hulisani Matakanye <p style="text-align: justify;">Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had severely taken a toll on the health system in all nations from the wealthiest to the poorest countries.&nbsp;The disruption to the health system was not only due to the direct effects of the COVID-19 pandemic but also the pressure it caused to stretch the health systems beyond their capability indirectly.&nbsp;The purpose of this review was to explore the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the indicators of the end tuberculosis strategy. Methods: Articles were searched from scientific search engines such as CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, ProQuest, APA Psych, INFO as well as manual searches through Google and Google Scholar search engines. Both quantitative and qualitative studies that showed the impact or effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on TB diagnosis, TB patient management, treatment initiation, treatment adherence, patients’ loss to follow up were included. A total of 375 articles were screened, and 12 full-text articles were ultimately included in the review. Findings: The extracted impact were synthesized thematically into three indicators of the end TB strategy: impact on TB incidence rate; impact on TB deaths; Impact on catastrophic costs due to TB. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the three indicators of the end TB strategy and has significantly reversed the global TB progress in the fight to end TB epidemic. This has increased the risk of TB incidence, deaths, and the severity of economic impact on TB-affected households. Therefore, there is a need for countries to take step forward and develop intervention strategies that will help them to resolve the damage caused by the pandemic on the achieve the targets to end TB. This study could improve strategies implementation regarding the management of TB disease.</p> 2023-11-29T19:09:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Peculiarities of Maqom Art in Uzbekistan 2023-11-29T19:18:01+00:00 Shakhnoza Ayxodjaeva <p style="text-align: justify;">This article examines the Khorezm maqoms, which represent one of the primary maqom types found in Uzbekistan. Specifically, it focuses on the production of Music-like songs within this maqom tradition, including Suvora, Naqsh, Faryod, Sayri Gulshan, and Muqaddima. The study delves into a theoretical and analytical exploration of these musical pieces. In addition, this study examines the “Maqom Suvorasi” within the “Khorazm Tanbur Line,” a distinctive musical notation associated with the Khorezm oasis. A comparative analysis is conducted between its representation in current music editions, elucidating both its shared characteristics and distinguishing features. In the Khorezm oasis, it has been observed that both the status suvoras and the “Suvora” series are present as distinct musical genres.</p> 2023-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Why the Results of Elections Don't Express the Will of the People 2023-11-29T21:17:39+00:00 Parth Jain <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This essay is a thought exercise on the process of elections. It aims to introduce a discussion into why elections may not be considered an absolute representation of the will of the electorate, as would be ideal in a democracy, with a broader objective of influencing discussion on how these aspects may be addressed in different democracies and systems of power.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-29T21:17:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##