International Journal of Social Science Research and Review <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management and&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;History</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> en-US <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (<br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><img src="//" alt="Creative Commons License"></a> <br><br></p> (Thomas Campbell) (IJSSRR Technical Support) Tue, 07 Mar 2023 20:48:05 +0000 OJS 60 Implementation of the Values of Pancasila in the Indonesian State System <p style="text-align: justify;">Indonesia is a constitutional state based on Pancasila as the basis of the state that regulates the life of the nation and state. Pancasila is a national ideology of the Indonesian nation that grows and develops in the midst of people's lives in Indonesia. Pancasila was formulated by its predecessors to become a guideline for social life. Pancasila has a value content that comes from the national ideology that comes from noble values ​​as outlined in the values ​​of Pancasila. In the values ​​contained in Pancasila there are values ​​of divinity, humanity, unity, democracy and justice. This journal discusses how the implementation of Pancasila values ​​in the Indonesian State Administration System. The application of Pancasila values ​​to the constitutional system must contain the existence of a boundary between power in various state institutions with the aim of equality of power in state institutions. In resolving a case, a deliberation for consensus is needed which must be upheld with the aim of creating a sense of security, peace and prosperity that is created from legal certainty and legal justice.</p> Nofi Sri Utami, Kharisma Keysa Arsa Putri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 18:18:24 +0000 Notary Legal Responsibility for Forgery of Notary Deeds by Workers <p style="text-align: justify;">In this thesis, the author analyzes legal protection for notaries related to forgery of notarial deeds by their workers, which is motivated by the existence of cases of forgery of notaries by notary workers where notaries bear material and immaterial losses. In addition, a notary can be held liable from a criminal, civil and administrative perspective due to the falsification of a notary deed by his/her employees. There is a law that is very related to preventive legal protection for Notaries in the event that their workers falsify Notary deeds the writing of this thesis uses the Normative Juridical method, with statutory and conceptual approaches. The types of legal materials are primary, secondary, and tertiary with technical literature study legal materials search. Techniques of analysis of legal material systematic interpretation.</p> Alfiana Alfiana, Nurini Aprilianda, Hariyanto Susilo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Administrative Legal Reference on PTUN Policies in Testing Elements of Abuse of Authority in Crime of Corruption <p style="text-align: justify;">In administrative law, every use of authority includes accountability, however, it must also be separated regarding procedures for obtaining and exercising authority because not all officials who exercise authority by attribution and delegation are parties who carry out tasks and or work on the basis of a mandate, not parties. who bear legal responsibility. This writing is motivated by the existence of problems, namely the Authority Policy of the State Administrative Court in Examining Elements of Abuse of Authority in Corruption Crimes, as well as Administrative Law References Against the Integration of Government Internal Supervisory Apparatuses in Preventing Internal Authority Abuse in Government Administration. The type of research conducted in this writer is normative juridical research.</p> Nofi Sri Utami, Ilham Baihaqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Operational Audit, Internal Control, Good Clinical Governance and Business Ethics of Hospital Institutions on the Effectiveness of Services JKN/BPJS Patient Health (Empirical Study at Medan Adventist Hospital) <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to improve the effectiveness of health services at the Medan Adventist Hospital, Hospital management should add good medical equipment so that the services provided become more effective. This type of research is quantitative. The population study was all doctors, nurses and administrative staff at the Adventist Hospital. Because the number of population is unknown, the number of samples is sought by the Cochran formula, the sample taken is 138 respondents. Methods of data analysis using multiple linear regression, classical assumptions and hypothesis testing. The results showed that the Operational Audit partially affected the effectiveness of hospital services. Internal control does not partially affect the effectiveness of hospital services. Good Clinical Governance partially affects the effectiveness of hospital services. Hospital Institutions Business Ethics does not partially affect the effectiveness of hospital services. Operational Audit, Internal Control, Good Clinical Governance and Business Ethics of Hospital Institutions simultaneously affect the Effectiveness of Hospital Services.</p> Namira Ufrida Rahmi, Daniel Ortega Tambunan, Yusuf Ronny Edward ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 19:23:18 +0000 Village Governance through Spirit of Dynamic Governance in Village Government, Indonesia <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #252525;">Dynamic governance results from capacity building to carry out development activities and adaptive policies to produce effective policies. The application of dynamic governance in village government involves three instruments of dynamic thinking: <em>thinking ahead,</em>&nbsp;<em>thinking again</em>,&nbsp;<em>and thinking across, </em>with the aim that villages can be adaptive and be able to institutionalize cultural values to spread a spirit of innovation to support prosperous development activities. This research was conducted by interactive qualitative analysis, starting with data collection, data condensation, data display, and drawing conclusions. The informants in this research are village government heads, stakeholders, and community leaders. Snowball sampling was used to collect informants while allowing them to express themselves freely. The results of the study show that by thinking ahead, the <em>stakeholders&nbsp;</em>build a mutually agreed-upon vision and mission and act progressively to build a modern village. In the pattern of "rethinking," <em>stakeholders&nbsp;</em>take advantage of village institutional meetings to review it repeatedly to improve work plans toward productive activities from their natural resources. Meanwhile, as a sustainable social welfare pendulum, stakeholders build social networks with outsiders to seek other resources such as financial assistance and expertise.&nbsp;This study adds to extended knowledge of governance practices at a local level in relation to rural development programs implementation in Indonesia.</span></p> Andi Antono, Ngalimun Ngalimun, Guntur Gunarto, Hikmah Nuraini, Endang Dwi Sulistyoningsih, Slamet Rosyadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 19:28:08 +0000 Kind of Morphophonemic changes in Pashto language <p style="text-align: justify;">Morphophonemic changes are considered vital discussion in the language and linguistic. These changes are a sample process in all language of the world, which are initially unconscious, easy, energy-saving and euphony. It has essential role in the growth and sustainability of a language. To this end, this research will investigate morphophonemic changes in Pashto language, and the cause and types of these changes. This research is a qualitative and data was collected from various Pashto theory and grammar books so that the morphophonemic changes were described with brief examples. It was discovered that the changes occur in order to reduce the physical and mental energy. In most cases the meaning of the morpheme is not change while the form of the morpheme changed. However, in some cases the meaning is also changed, such as in omission one phoneme is obliterated. In some examples create new morpheme, which cause create different meaning in the language. Regarding the changing of meaning there is different ideas in the books, some linguists say that these changes do not cause to change the meaning while some says that sometimes they change the meaning as well. Based on my opinion all morphophonemic changes do not change the meaning, for instance in assimilation and dissimilation and in the omission it changes the meaning like in /spor/ in English horseback or rider morpheme if the /p/ omit it become /sor/, which /sor/ means length in Pashto. This article tries to describe the morphophonemic changes in Pashto language.</p> Zahidullah Karimzai, Mohammad Israr Shinwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 19:54:22 +0000 The Effectiveness of Maritime Surveillance to Handling Drug Smuggling by Sea in Banten Province <p>Banten Province is one of the provinces in Indonesia which is vulnerable to drug smuggling. Banten is included in a drug-prone area because this province has coastal areas, seafront or beaches bordering the sea which are used as drug smuggling routes by sea. Because of this, research is needed to determine the potential threats about drug smuggling that exist in Banten. This research is included in the type of qualitative descriptive research. The data collection techniques used in this research were interviews, observation, and documentation. In this study, the validity of the data was checked using a triangulation technique. Furthermore, the analysis technique used was the analysis interactive model according to Miles, et al. (2014), namely condensation, data display, and conclusions drawing/verifying. This research discusses about maritime security threats related to drug smuggling in Banten Province, which contains about the factors that cause drug smuggling, the modus of drug smuggling that occurs in Banten, drug smuggling networks in Banten, and cases of drug smuggling in Banten.</p> Aini Nahdlia Puspita, Surya Wiranto, Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, Pujo Widodo, Herlina Juni Risma Saragih ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The The Covid-19 Pandemic and Digital Transformation in Zimbabwean State Universities: Opportunities, Challenges, and Implications for the Transition to Online Learning <p style="text-align: justify;">During the Covid-19 pandemic peak, emergency online learning and investment in educational technologies became eminent for universities to remain relevant and serve their various stakeholders. Though there are several studies on the educational institutions’ responses to the pandemic, these studies cannot be aggregated as key factors such as national, cultural, institutional, and continental contexts signify fundamental differences in possible opportunities, challenges, outcomes, and implications of implementing online learning in universities across the world. This study explores the implementation of online learning in Zimbabwean State universities during the Covid-19 pandemic. The reconstruction of the quick e-learning implementation and the lessons learned can be used as a foundation to inform the post-pandemic journey into building a resilient education sector that is digitally strong to function in the future. Employing the pragmatism research philosophy that crystallised through a sequential mixed method research design, the study found that the sudden move to online learning had some digital, organisational, and pedagogical opportunities, challenges, and implications. The opportunities include improvement in the quality of education, synergy, and flexibility in learning. Challenges encompass the lack of resources, poor technological infrastructure, poor internet connections, power disruptions, and expensive internet data. The study recommends investment in digital infrastructure, training of students and lecturers, psychological support, blended learning, and incorporation of educational technology and fourth industrial revolution tools in the university curriculum such that the key stakeholder (student)is fully served while upholding quality in teaching, learning, and assessment.</p> Favourate. Y Mpofu; Amos Mpofu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 20:42:32 +0000 Analysis of Intellectual Property Rights Disputes Between PS Glow and MS Glow in View of Law No. 20 of 2016 Concerning Marks and Geographical Indications (Analysis of Decision of Case Number: 2/Pdt.Sus.HKI/Merek/2022/PN.Niaga Sby) <p style="text-align: justify;">This study analyzes intellectual property rights disputes between PSGlow and MSGlow in terms of Law no. 20 of 2016 concerning Trademarks and Geographical Indications (analysis of case decision number: 2/pdt.sus.HKI/Merek/2022/pn.niaga Sby) which aims to explain and analyze the basic considerations of Surabaya Commercial Court judges in accepting lawsuits, explaining and analyzing how is the legal protection of trademarks that have been registered based on Law No. 20 of 2016 concerning Trademarks and Geographical Indications, explaining and analyzing whether there is an element of passing off between PS Glow and MS Glow based on Case Decision Number: 2/Pdt.Sus.HKI /Merek/2022/PN. Niaga Sby.The legal materials in this research are primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials using normative research methods.The basis for consideration is that a lawsuit was filed from PS Glow for the use of the brand without rights against MS Glow. and legal protection for brands that have been registered under Law no. 20 of 2016 concerning Marks and Geographical Indications, namely that the penalties that will be imposed on these counterfeiters can be in the form of imprisonment, imprisonment and fines, as referred to in articles 100 to 102 of Law No. 20 of 2016 concerning Marks and Geographical Indications. and between PS Glow and MS Glow there is no element of passing off based on Case Decision Number: 2/Pdt.Sus.HKI/Merek/2022/PN.Niaga Sby, because the MS Glow brand registers its brand in HAKI in class 32 with the classification of powdered drinks and PS Glow registered their brand on Intellectual Property Rights in class 3 with a cosmetic classification.</p> Indiera Fortuna Gracia, Kurniawan Kurniawan, Eduardus Bayo Sili ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 20:47:48 +0000 Non-Surgical Endodontic Retreatment of Anterior Tooth with Open Apex: A Report of Two cases <p style="text-align: justify;">The main reason for an endodontic failure is the persistence or regrowth of bacteria within the root canal system. Retreatment of such cases is needed to irradicate the bacteria from the canals.&nbsp; Endodontic retreatment of a tooth with open apex can be an challenge because of difficulty in obtaining an apical seal, and existing thin radicular walls which are susceptible to fracture. An apical barrier with calcium hydroxide has been the treatment of choice for such cases previously. But due its disadvantages MTA has gained popularity in dealing with such cases with blunderbuss canal and open apex. This article presents two case reports of failed root canal treatment of central incisors which were successfully managed with non-surgical retreatment.</p> Abdulelah sameer sindi, Youssef A Algarni, Suheel Manzoor Baba, Shafait Ullah Khateeb ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 21:27:52 +0000 Determinants of Purchase Intention on the Marketplace <p style="text-align: justify;">The behavior of the community, especially in Indonesia, is currently undergoing changes. Initially shopping conventionally switched to shopping online. To meet the needs of the community, the marketplace is an option to meet daily needs. &nbsp;Marketplace is an online-based business platform that involves good transactions between related parties. Various determining factors in encouraging consumers to determine purchase intent on a marketplace various determining factor in encouraging consumers to determine purchase intent on a marketplace. The purpose of creating a marketplace is to provide facilities in the form of business interaction and collaboration on online platforms. The purpose of this study is to test the influence of functional value, social value, emotional value, brand awareness on purchase intention in a marketplace. The research was conducted by involving people in the Jabodetabek area who had made transactions on a marketplace. The sampling technique used in the study was non-probability sampling with convenience sampling technique. The sample size involved 122 respondents. Research data were obtained by distributing questionnaires through Google-Form. The analysis technique uses the SEM program SmartPLS 4.0. The results showed that functional value has a positive and significant influence on purchase intention. &nbsp;Social value has a positive but not significant influence on purchase intention. &nbsp;Emotional value has a positive but not significant influence on purchase intention. &nbsp;Brand awareness has a positive and significant influence on purchase intention. The results of the study are expected to make consideration of a marketplace to increase functional value and brand awareness because this can affect people's purchase intentions.</p> Rodhiah Rodhiah, Rodhiah Rodhiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 21:34:43 +0000 Enhancing Domestic Resource Mobilization: Experiences, Challenges and Potential Opportunities from the Sub-Sahara Africa <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;Enhancing domestic resource mobilization (DRM) in many countries especially in the Sub-Sahara Africa remains a daunting task. Many strategies and approaches to improve domestic revenue collection adopted by governments have not given rise to significant improvement in DRM. Approaches such as the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to monitor implementation of revenue mobilization, laws, regulations and procedures; electronic fiscal device management system (EFDMS), improvement of the business and investment environment, monitoring of various directives issued by the government on DRM. This paper reviews various measures taken by the government to enhance domestic revenues mobilization in selected Sub-Sahara Africa countries focusing on Senegal, Rwanda and Botswana. Literature reviews on DRM was conducted in various journal articles, governments’ reports including budget speeches and financial management documents covering the period of five years from 2016 to 2020. This period was chosen because it was period under the late president John Pombe Magufuli who instituted various measures aimed at enhancing domestic resource mobilization. The review of 2016 to 2020 period revealed that out of the three countries, only Botswana has been able to meet targets for DRM. Significant improvement was recorded in DRM while the inflows from the other two countries were unstable and unpredictable mainly due to logistical problem and political difficulties of taxing the informal sector. The qualities of revenue policies were inadequate, weak revenue administration capacity, inability to tax to full potential of natural resources and inadequate application of ICT technology. In Rwanda, political commitment was noted to contribute significantly to revenue mobilization especially the strong monitoring and evaluation system in place. The paper argues that widening the DRM base, especially the tax and non-tax revenue bases, designing policies and strategies that are supportive and creating an enabling environment and mainstreaming ICT for revenue collection from the rapidly growing informal sector require &nbsp;critical policy considerations.</p> Adrian Peter Njau, Wilbard Jackson Kombe, Lemayon Lemilia Melyoki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Mar 2023 21:46:44 +0000 Interpretation of Images of the Animal World and Their Functions in Iranian Folk Tales <p>This research paper provides information about the characteristics of the animal world, especially the wolf, in Iranian folk tales.</p> Umarov U.A. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 06 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Video-Assisted Inquiry Learning in Science Lessons and Implementation to Enhance Students' Critical Thinking Abilities in Elementary School <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to see the impact of inquiry-based learning (IBL) using video-assisted has on science studies on critical thinking ability. The study used a total of 58 students from both classes VA as an experiment class and VB as an expository class, conducted in one of Bekasi elementary schools. This research used a mixed method, while tests, surveys, interviews, and observations were used for the data gathering. The tests have been tested for validity and reliability. This study also used pre-test and post-test of the control group design. According to Kolmogorov Smirnov, the results of the N-Gain score from experiment class Sig. is 0.98 &gt; 0.05 and the N-Gain result from the expository class is 0.20 &gt; 0.05, thus, this means that both of the class have normal distribution classes. Homogeneity test using SPSS 22 produces a Sig. value of 0.292 &gt; 0.05, this means both data are homogeneous then analysis followed through the T-test. Based on the independent sample test in Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances conclude that Sig. the score is 0.000 &lt; 0.05. This means, there is a significant difference in effectiveness between the use of inquiry-based learning with video-assisted-in experiment class to improve the critical thinking ability of students in class V elementary school in Bekasi. Then, in conclusion, H<sub>0 </sub>is denied and H<sub>1 </sub>is approved, which means that the user of inquiry-based learning with video assistance can improve students' critical thinking skills in class V on the science subject of human motion tools.</p> Mayarni Mayarni, Fasli Jalal, M. Syarif Sumantri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 06 Mar 2023 20:44:36 +0000 The Limitation in Choice of Law and Choice of Forum Within International Business Contract <p style="text-align: justify;">Clauses on Choice of Law and Choice of Forum are often used in International Trade Contract. Its usage is strongly motivated by cross-jurisdictional parties, allowing them to adhere to the different legal systems. The function of the choice of law and choice of forum is to provide legal certainty among the parties in the creation, implementation, and resolution of disputes that arise in the future. The choice of law concerns the material law imposed by the parties, while the choice of the forum concerns the forum where the dispute will be resolved. The basic principle in the choice of law and the choice of forum is the autonomy of the parties, where the parties are given the freedom to determine the law and the forum in the contract they make. This freedom is not unlimited but has limitations in its application. Limitations within determining the law and the forum used, among others, do not violate public order and mandatory rules, are not carried out for legal smuggling, and must be based in good faith. The validity of the choice of law and the choice of the forum depends on the violation of these restrictions so that the parties can acknowledge and accept the choice of law and the choice of the forum.</p> Rizky Amalia, Fairuz Zahirah Zihni Hamdan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 06 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Legal Protection of Indonesian Traditional Foods from the Perspective of Geographical Indications <p style="text-align: justify;">Culture in society produces creations that become the identity of each region in the country. However, with the development of the times and the ease of accessing information, one of them is traditional food, authentic food which continues to be preserved by indigenous peoples or indigenous cultures such as traditional food which is easily exploited not only by the indigenous people who preserve it but also other parties. This paper examines how traditional food can be recognized as an intellectual work and its legal protection so that its identity can be recognized. This research uses the type of normative juridical research. This normative legal research is based on primary and secondary legal materials, namely the research approach using a conceptual approach and statutory approach. The results of this study are that traditional food is said to be traditional knowledge having several elements 1. Traditional food recipes are obtained from generation to generation, 2. Traditional food has been consumed gradually by the community for a long time, 3. Traditional food was born and developed in certain areas and can be the identity of the area, 4. Process of food processing which still tends to use traditional methods, 5. Not infrequently traditional food has a meaning or meaning and becomes one and 6. It is unclear the ownership of food recipes, but the ownership is communal.</p> Citra Dewi Maydawati, Afifah Kusumadara, Hanif Nur Widhiyanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 06 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Laughter Is an Aesthetic Phenomenon <p style="text-align: justify;">This article examines laughter, including its impact on volume, persuasiveness, and its role in exposing social flaws. Many pieces of the scientific literature have been produced since antiquity–specifically, since Aristotle–that illuminate the meaning and subject of pilgrimage. Our research, which conducted an extensive investigation in this field, helped establish Uzbek literature’s new orientation at the start of the 20th century. One of the most significant categories of fiction was studied in these studies, and many opinions were expressed about the nature, genres, and importance of laughing in it. Also, a number of works that advance aesthetic thought were produced. With this work, we aimed to establish the context, importance of the issue, the value of humor in writing, and the conclusions reached.</p> Tashmukhamedova Latofat Ismatovna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 06 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the Pension Systems between Iceland, Netherland, and Thailand: Lessons for the Pension System Reform of Indonesian Civil Servants <p style="text-align: justify;">The current implementation of the civil servant (PNS) pension program still has many problems that have a major impact on the adequacy and sustainability of Indonesia's pension system. This study aims to take lessons from a comparison of pension systems in Iceland, Netherland, Thailand, and Indonesia. The results of the discussion provide several recommendations or suggestions for civil servant pension programs which are currently in the process of being reformed. The Indonesian government needs to consider the high transition costs and the performance of pension funds, as happened in Netherland if it wants to change the pension scheme to a defined contribution. Based on this study, the fully funded method that is planned to be implemented does not always reduce the funding burden. Hence, learning from Thailand, civil servant pensioners should consider using a partially funded financing system as an initial step for civil servant pension reform. In addition, the government also needs to consider increasing the minimum retirement age which is determined based on the life expectancy of the Indonesian people. To support this proposal policy (increase the retirement age), so Indonesian government needs also plan programs related to the development of employee skills and competencies. This is very important to keep older employees productive in the workplace or organization.</p> Kari Septiana Dewi, Pantius Drahen Soeling ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 06 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Information Asymmetry in Preemptive Rights Seen from the Legal Perspective of the Indonesian Capital Market <p style="text-align: justify;">Asymmetric information in corporate action in the capital market can occur, not least in the preemptive rights (HMETD). The purpose of this article is to find out whether the disclosure of information in regulations in Indonesia is under the disclosure principle and does not contain asymmetric information. This article uses the juridical-normative method by reviewing POJK No. 14/POJK.04/2019 and other regulations related to corporate action. This article found that the disclosure of information from various regulations related to capital addition and others is still in the disclosure of company profile pictures and proforma after the implementation of HMETD, not counting the costs of the action.</p> Debrina Rahmawati, Suhariningsih Suhariningsih, Sukarmi Sukarmi, Sihabudin Sihabudin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 20:51:35 +0000 Law Enforcement Corruption of Village Funds <p style="text-align: justify;">In managing villages finances based on regulations still in effect today, discrepancies are still found between rules and practice. Regarding village fund matters, which continue to be hot topic among various groups, the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) found several problems managing village funds. These problems must be understood as well as possible because they hold the potential for deviation. This study aims to determine law enforcement against perpetrators of misuse of village funds in Bedegung village, Semidang Aji District, Ogan komering Ulu District, and what are legal consequences for misusing village funds in Ogan Komering Ulu District. This research was conducted in Ogan Komering Ulu Regency, namely the app law aparatus (Inspectorate, Ogan Komering Ulu Police), and the Ogan Komering Ulu District Prosecutor's Office. The type of research is classified as sociological, legal analysis, which is descriptive. Data collection was carried out through library research, namely library research, by assessing secondary data in the form of primary legal materials, secondary legal materials, and tertiary legal materials. Based on this research, it can be understood that to find out the problem of how to enforce the law against the misuse of village funds in Ogan Komering Ulu Regency and reporting process, where misuse itself is classified as a criminal act of corruption.</p> Puasanto Puasanto, Rosmaniar Rosmaniar, Atika Atika ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 21:01:29 +0000 Influences of Supervision and Organizational Culture on Performance through Work Discipline <p style="text-align: justify;">Public service quality is determined, among other things, by how optimal management performance is at these institutions. There are several factors that can influence the management performance, namely: organization culture, work discipline and supervision. This research objectives were: to examine influences of organization culture, work discipline and supervision towards management performance; to examine organizational-culture influence on managers ‘performance through discipline of work; and to examine the influence of supervision on managers’performance through work discipline. The research population was managers of activity-acting unit in the National Program for Independent Community Empowerment (NPICE) in Mojokerto Regency, East Java, Indonesia. The determination of sample number used a saturated sampling method, so that all fifty members of population were determined to be the sample. Data collection was done with questionnaire which was directly distributed to respondents. The data analysis technique used the path analysis with the program of Smart PLS. The research resulted in the conclusion that: (1) organizational culture, supervision and discipline of work had a significant and positive influence to managers’performance; (2) organization culture had significant and positive and effects to managers ‘performance through discipline of work (3) supervision had positively and significantly influenced managers ‘performance through discipline of work. Therefore, attempts of improving the management performance of NPICE could be done by strengthening the organizational culture accompanied with consistent supervision and by increasing work discipline.</p> Dian Rosalina, Sugeng Mulyono, G. Budi Wahyono ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Violation of Incumbent Candidates and Bawaslu’s Authority <p>The Republic of Indonesian Constitution, Article 1, Paragraph 2 :"Sovereignty is in the hands of people and is exercised under the basic Law," ratified 1945." The provision provides a strong foundation that Indonesia is constitutional democracy; therefore, the people's participation in government implementation is the main requirement, especially in filling public offices. Among the cases simultaneous election disputes that have arisen is the disqualification process of incumbents suspected of committing violations in the elections. Resolving disqualification disputes with the incumbent still found various issues and opinions about the legal norms in force today. This study employs a qualitative normative approach to data analysis by examining and describing the retrieved legal materials in light of applicable legal standards or regulations. The relevant information is then given in narrative texts, with descriptions that follow a consistent, well-thought-out structure. The prohibition on exercising authority in his favour is a subject of electoral discussion. On this side, we are all aware that the incumbent's policies must be advantageous to him from teh moment he elected, as incumbents have the propensity to seek re-election. On this side, the incumbent candidate already has extensive access to the community's voters. when the activity is deemed advantageous to the incumbent candidates, it is vital to establish clear boundaries. and whether six months constitutes adequate time to limit initiatives that benefit incumbent.</p> Karlina Karlina, Lilis Anisah, Atika Atika ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 22:10:07 +0000 The Effect of Dividend Policy and Investment Opportunity on Firm Value Is Mediated by Capital Structure <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to analyze investment opportunity and dividend policy on the firm value and moderated by the company's capital structure. The sample used in this study consists of the annual financial statements of all listed LQ 45 companies. on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The sample of this study was 23 companies selected through the purposive sampling method. The company data for this sample selection were taken from financial reports and annual reports from the official website of the Indonesia Stock Exchange, namely and the company's official website. Data processing is done using Sobel software (path analysis). The results of this study indicate the influence of investment opportunity, and dividend policy on firm value in LQ45 companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) mediated by the company's capital structure.</p> Yusbardini Yusbardini, Kurniati W. Andani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Police Use of Driverless Vehicles a Preliminary Study <p style="text-align: justify;">During the last decades, road accidents have become one of the leading death causes, especially for youths (WHO, 2017; Adminaite et al., 2018). Technology is working on its and is providing solutions to reduce the risk of accidents and road victims (Kyriakidis et al., 2015; Peden et al., 2016). Driverless cars are a decisive factor in reducing road accidents in the future (Rowley et al., 2018; bertoncello &amp; Wee, 2015; La Torre et al., 2017; Fowle &amp; Loeb, 2018; Dia, 2018). Safety, confidence, privacy, reliability and responsability are the most important factors that are considered before buying or driving this type of car (Becker &amp; Axhausen, 2017; Nordhoff et al., 2018). These factors are fundamental in case of adoption of driverless vehicles for Police activity (Al Suwadi et al., 2018; Al Shouk, 2018).</p> Nicole Miriam Scala, Paolo Cestra, Gianfranco Rufa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 22:37:57 +0000 Multi-level Analysis of Climate Knowledge Management in Tanzania <p style="text-align: justify;">Climate change governance is highly knowledge intensive. Knowledge from both natural and social sciences has been fundamental in climate change decision-making globally. However, climate knowledge management has not been systematically analyzed in many countries, thus creating gaps in terms of knowledge production and use at various levels. This paper is framed to understand climate knowledge management at multiple levels in Tanzania. First, the paper identifies gaps and needs in climate knowledge; then, it conducts a multiple-level analysis for climate knowledge management. To accomplish this, the paper applies a combination of knowledge management theories to analyze data from the literature and interviews. Results show there are critical knowledge gaps and needs in Tanzania in terms of localized climate change science; sectoral vulnerability; sectoral greenhouse gas emissions management; socio-economic climate resilience data; localized climatic and weather information; and knowledge on disaster risk reduction. Fundamentally, climate knowledge is not fully mainstreamed into the sectoral knowledge management frameworks and is less prioritized in sectoral planning processes. Lack of climate change policy, lack of a climate change unit with a specialized focus on climate change research, inadequate specialized climate change expertise, financial constraints, and inadequate adoption of ICT are some of the barriers blocking climate knowledge management at multiple levels. Due to this, the formulation and implementation of climate change policies, strategies, plans, programs, and projects in Tanzania are faced with scarcity, uncertainty and unreliability of climate knowledge making it particularly difficult for the country to effectively address climate change challenges. The paper serves as input for actions to improve climate knowledge management to strengthen climate change governance in Tanzania.</p> Abbas S. Kitogo, Jon C. Lovett ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 23:51:20 +0000 UNCLOS 1982 Analysis Regarding Problems of State Jurisdiction and Law Enforcement on Foreign Flag Ships <p style="text-align: justify;">International Law of the Sea are legal principles governing the rights and authorities of a country over sea areas under its national jurisdiction (national jurisdiction). International Law has reign most interactions between States in the sea. The practice of illegal transshipment is a serious issue as it falls within both theft mode and smuggling through the transfer of cargo from one ship to another that occurs at sea. Including a crime which committed in the territory of one state but involving parties from another state or more. Law enforcement is a major concern when an offence of some kind of illegal transshipment occurs. The study aims to determine the jurisdiction of states in enforcing laws including in criminal matters that occurred over its sea where the country has sovereign rights, especially when the involvement of 3rd states party in the law enforcement on a ship which not entered into its territory, yet indicately committed a violation of the law in some states water area, this paper also study how the responsibility of 3rd states party towards of flag states of ships who feel harmed. This article was written using normative research methods with a statutory. Historical and conceptual approach explaining efforts from international organizations in resolving the issues of accountability of countries involved in the problem of Illegal Transshipment at sea in the 1982 UNCLOS perspective especially the process of law enforcement and dispute resolution by the International Tribunal for the Law of The Sea.</p> Grace Carolina, Budiman Djoko Said, Rudiyanto Rudiyanto, Pujo Widodo, Herlina Juni Risma Saragih, Panji Suwarno ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:11:50 +0000 Service Recovery on Loyalty through Customer Satisfaction at Fast Food Restaurant “X” in North Jakarta <p style="text-align: justify;">Fast food restaurant “X” has four competitors, which becomes challenges. Therefore, this restaurant can establish good relationships with customers, so they become loyal. Customer loyalty can be influenced by the three dimensions of service recovery through customer satisfaction and by customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction can be influenced by the three dimensions of service recovery. Hence, this research aims to test the influence of the three dimensions of service recovery on customer satisfaction; test the influence of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty; examine the role of customer satisfaction in mediating the influence of the three dimensions of service recovery on customer loyalty. The population is customers from fast food restaurant “X” in North Jakarta. A sample of 140 were selected using non- probability sampling method with purposive sampling technique. The data were collected using questionnaires via Google Form. The data analysis technique used is SEM using SmartPLS. The results are distributive and interactional justice have positive influence on customer satisfaction; procedural justice doesn’t have positive influence on customer satisfaction; customer satisfaction has positive influence on customer loyalty; distributive and interactional justice have positive influence on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction; procedural justice doesn’t have positive influence on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction.</p> Rodhiah Rodhiah, Ervina Ervina ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 08 Mar 2023 01:01:16 +0000 The Urgency Expansion of Authority Religious Court Regarding Bankruptcy Cases and Suspension of Sharia Economic Debt Payment Obligations <p style="text-align: justify;">Indonesia is a country with Pancasila ideology and 1945 Constitution Republic of Indonesia is highest law. The goal national development based on Pancailsa and 1945 Constitution Republic of Indonesia is creation a just and prosperous society, based on economic democracy, by developing an economic system that is based on a fair market mechanism. In order to realize this goal, the implementation of national economic development is directed at an economy that is in favor of the people's economy, equitable, independent, reliable, just and able to compete in economic arena. One of forms potential courts and manifestation community's contribution to national economy is development of an economic system based on Islamic values (sharia) by elevating its principles into national legal system. Sharia principles are based on values of justice, benefit, balance and universality.</p> Suud Fuadi, Thohir Luth, Sihabudin Sihabudin, Siti Hamidah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Socio-Political Function of Grace in Wesleyan Theology and Praxis <p style="text-align: justify;">One of the key theological themes in Wesleyan studies is the concept of grace. The doctrine of grace is foundational to John Wesley’s soteriology and socio-political theology. Divine grace comes to play in the creation, and redemption of humankind. God’s gracious dealing with sinful humanity produces in the believer the love for God and for other human beings. Consequently, the renewal of the believer does not only affect the believer’s inner being but also informs the believer’s relationship with other humans and with the environment. In the contemporary world where many Christians privatize their faith and virtually make no impact in the public arena, an exploration of the socio-political role of grace in John Wesley’s theology and praxis provides a model which could be followed in making Christianity meaningful and relevant in everyday life. This article used a literature-based research approach to examine how Wesley’s experience of divine grace informed his theological views about the fall of humanity, restoration of sinful humanity, and holiness. The paper also examines Wesley’s efforts in dealing with such socio-political issues as poverty, slavery and oppression. The main thesis of the paper is that, for the Christian gospel to have both spiritual and socio-political ramifications, Christians must participate actively in the socio-political activities of their societies. The paper, therefore, aims at discouraging the dichotomization between private and social life. &nbsp;</p> Isaac Boaheng ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Workload and Work Stress with Work Motivation as Intervening Variables on the Performance <p style="text-align: justify;">Performance is a result of the efforts made by a person or organization in an activity that is by the authority and responsibility of each to create organizational goals. This study aims to obtain empirical evidence by knowing the direct effect of workload and work stress on the performance of health workers in hospitals. AR Bunda Prabumulih and the indirect effect of workload and work stress on performance through the work motivation of health workers in hospitals. AR Bunda Prabumulih. This study used a sample of 142 respondents from hospital health workers. AR Bunda Prabumulih used a survey method with a questionnaire. The study was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis methods with quantitative data and SEM (Structural Equation Model). The test results show that the variable that workload has a direct effect on performance, workload has a direct effect on performance, work motivation has an effect on performance, workload has an effect on performance through motivation, work stress has an effect on performance through work motivation as an intervening variable. Based on the results coefficient workload, work stress and work motivation have a direct positive effect on the performance of health workers during the COVID-19 endemic in hospitals. AR Bunda Prabumulih as well as workload variables and work stress variables have a positive influence on the performance of health workers during the COVID-19 endemic at the hospital. AR Bunda Prabumulih through work motivation as an intervening variable<em>.</em></p> M. Nasrul Fadhli, Agustina Hanafi, Yuliani Yuliani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Work from Home and Work Stress on the Performance of Bappeda Employees of the South Sumatra Province of Palembang <p style="text-align: justify;">Employee performance is the result of work performed by employees by job-specific criteria. Work From Home factors and work-related stress influence employee performance. The research was conducted with BAPPEDA employees in the province of South Sumatra. The number of respondents sampled was 137, and survey questionnaires and personal interviews were used to collect data. Multiple linear regression is the method of analysis used. Work from home has a positive effect on performance, work stress affects performance, and both affect employee performance, according to research. This study demonstrates that the negative impact of work from home is stress, resulting in decreased employee performance.</p> I Dewo Putu Arisandi, Badia Perizade, Agustina Hanafi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis of Public-Private Contracting: How Complexity and Uncertainty in Public Service Delivery Make Contracting Unfeasible <p style="text-align: justify;">Public-private contracting refers to partnerships between the public and private sectors that share the risk, the cost, and the responsibility to execute projects. By utilizing the expertise and skills of the private sector, public private contracting has become a mechanism for enhanced service delivery in the government arena. However, both actors' economic, political, and administrative aspects make the contracting procedure incredibly complicated and impractical. The study used a content analysis approach to thoroughly explore secondary sources of literature in order to examine how challenges within the actor's domain lead to project failure. Two case studies from Netherlands and Bangladesh is presented in the analysis to explain how uncertainty and complexity in the public sector domain made the two dreamy projects unfeasible. The case studies also illustrated several players' competing interests and the usual public sector characteristics persisted in project delivery, which resulted in rising costs and ultimately led to the failure of both initiatives.</p> Subah Samara ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mentoring for Developing Teachers’ Specialised Knowledge of Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers at the Intermediate Phase <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was conducted to explore the link between mentoring of intermediate phase pre-service teachers of mathematics and the development of mathematics teachers' specialised knowledge (MTSK). The focus is on how the teaching practice (TP) program (Practicum) provides an opportunity for the development of mathematical teachers’ specialised knowledge (MSTK) for pre-service teachers. The qualitative research approach was employed for data collection and then analysed through the thematic narrative analysis technique and categorised into MTSK sub-domains. Data revealed that mathematics mentors, in the intermediate phases, did not attempt to develop pre-service teachers’ mathematical teacher's specialised knowledge (MTSK), thus negatively impacting building a comprehensive conceptual framework of effective Mathematics teaching practice. Data also revealed that the mathematics mentors are not mathematics specialists; they lack mathematical specialised content knowledge (MSCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK). The study recommends that mathematics mentoring be based on mathematics specialisation; that is, teachers who majored in mathematics strictly should be mathematics mentors. Further, they should be competent and possess mathematical expertise, commitment, and time to assist pre-service mathematics teachers during practicum. The development of MTSK and its approaches and techniques for mathematics teaching and learning should also be emphasised during the mentoring process.</p> John Elphas Masina, Msawenkosi Sandile Mbokazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Juridical Study of Islamic Law Against Marriage Under the Hand Through Online Applications <p style="text-align: justify;">In Indonesia, the only recognized legal frameworks for marriage are Law No. 1 of 1974 and the Compilation of Islamic Law's marriage articles. However, at the start of 2015, the media reported on a new phenomenon known as "online marriage," where certain individuals offered marriage services for a fee without the need for a marriage guardian. In examining the legal status of these marriages under Islamic law, it is important to note that no guardian or even a prospective bride is required. This qualitative study uses a juridical-normative approach and a literature review as its methodology. Primary data was obtained from online marriage service providers, while related references served as secondary data sources. The findings of the study indicate that these marriages are considered invalid under both religious law and legislation.</p> Irma Suryani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Legal Consequences of Mark Cancellation of Brand Licensees <p style="text-align: justify;">The granting of a license by the holder of the rights to a certain mark reflects that the rights to the mark have an economic value because the holder of the rights to the mark must try to maintain the existence of the rights to the mark. To maintain the existence of the rights to the mark, the holder of the right to the mark often applies for the cancellation of the rights to the mark registered by other business actors, which if they have an overall resemblance to the mark they own, with the conditions as stipulated in Article 77 of Law No. 20/2016 concerning Trademarks. The interests of the party who can file a lawsuit for cancellation can be divided into 2 (two), namely: (a). Interests in the public domain, in the event of cancellation, are filed by the Attorney, foundations/institutions in the consumer sector, and religious councils/institutions, with the reasons of Article 20 of Law No.20/2016 concerning Marks or Article 21 letter c or letter d of Law No.20/2016 concerning Marks; and (b). Interests in the private sphere, if a claim for cancellation is filed by a registered trademark owner, a trademark owner who has good faith but is not registered,d or a well-known brand owner but the trademark is not registered, with the reasons as stipulated in Article 21 letter a, letter b, or letter e of the Law No.20/2016 concerning Brands. Cancellation of a registered mark causes the holder of trademark rights to the mark to lose the exclusive right to the brand granted by the state within a certain period to use the mark or to give permission to other parties to use the mark. The existence of good faith in the license agreement greatly influences the birth of legal protection for the licensee when the registered trademark owned by the licensor is cancellecanceledd out by the licensee, the rights of the licensor should be protected by law.</p> Sebastian Putra Gunawan, Lucianus Budi Kagramanto, Endang Prasetyawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 10 Mar 2023 20:28:17 +0000 The Urgency of Law Enforcement Offenses of Defamation in Indonesia based on the Insignificance Principle <p>Defamation in Indonesian law has been regulated by several regulations, one of which is Law Number 19 of 2016 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions (UU ITE). The very subjective nature of this article is prone to causing violations of freedom of expression. The existing offense provides space for someone to criminalize another person for an act that is not significant with the characteristics/essential nature of criminal law. Therefore, the state needs to pay more attention to the operationalization of the offense so as not to cause excessive criminalization. It is necessary to renew the defamation offense that adopts the principle of insignificance in order to reduce excessive criminalization and guarantee human rights. Based on these thoughts, the authors conducted this research. The method used is juridical-normative. The approach used is a statutory approach and a conceptual approach<em>.</em></p> Wiranto Tri Setiawan, Umi Rozah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Mar 2023 01:32:11 +0000 Legal Justice for Buyers Who Have Paid Ownership Payments of Flats Units When They Are Not Certificated <p style="text-align: justify;">On the one hand, the availability of land and housing at affordable prices is a problem for the urban population explosion. For this reason, efforts to build flats are a priority for housing procurement, considering the large number of residents who need housing. With consideration of affordable prices, the construction of flats for middle-class citizens is still paying attention to the standardization of decent, healthy, and comfortable housing. Act No. 20 of 2011 concerning flats in Article 24 explains that the construction of flats must comply with technical and administrative provisions and the UUPK regarding the rights of residents buying flats to obtain certificates that must be fulfilled according to the agreed agreement.</p> Khoirul Anwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Mar 2023 19:03:56 +0000 Some Comments for Boilers, Which Concerning to Sapalli Culture <p>In the article analysed one of the boilers a vessel of Sapalli culture –boilers, concerning to different stages of development. Their forms, the sizes and appointments are investigated. It is resulted analogies, chronology, areas of distribution and a role in a life the population of an epoch of bronze of the given culture. Article sources is the published data on a theme and archaeological materials from own excavation in Jarkutan, developments of Sapalli culture concerning to different stages.</p> Komil Akramovich Rakhimov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Existence of Land Bank Related to Law No. 11 of 2020 Concerning Employment Creation as an Alternative to Land Supply <p style="text-align: justify;">Job Creation Law (Law No. 11 of 2020) establishes a special agency that manages land, namely a land bank agency, whose function is to carry out planning, acquisition, procurement, management, utilization, and distribution of land. The existence of a Land Bank is regulated by Articles 125 through 135 of the Job Creation Law. Then a formal test was carried out on the Job Creation Law by the Constitutional Court, which was in Constitutional Court Decision No. 91/PUU-XVIII/2020, which mentioned Law No. 11 of 2020 about Job Creation being declared formally disabled. In the seventh point of the Constitutional Court Decision No.91/PUU-XVIII/2020 dated 25 November 2021 it explicitly states the suspension of all government actions/policies that are strategic in nature and have broad implications, including new implementing regulations of the Job Creation Law. The government is ordered to make improvements, within a maximum period of two years, and if within that time no improvements are made, the Job Creation Law will become permanently unconstitutional. Even though the Constitutional Court's decision states that the Job Creation Law is still valid, it has no binding force. Ironically, the government issued Government Regulation No. 64 of 2021 concerning the Land Bank Agency in the context of implementing the provisions of Article 135 of the Job Creation Law and also Presidential Regulation No. 113 of 2021 concerning the Structure and Operation of a Land Bank. The method used in this study is a normative juridical approach, namely testing and tracing related to laws and regulations. The purpose of this study is to find out the existence and implications of the Land Bank institution, especially its derivative regulations related to the Constitutional Court Decision No.91/PUU-XVIII/2020 which states the conditional unconstitutionality of the Job Creation Law, including the implementation of the Land Bank which is included in the category of strategic policies and has wide-reaching impacts according to the sound Article 4 of Law No. 11 of 2020 and the Constitutional Court's decision.</p> Rosmawati Rosmawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Mar 2023 22:13:57 +0000 Effects of Explicit Music Lyrics to the Cebu Technological University – Danao Campus Students <p style="text-align: justify;">Music has been one of the sources of entertainment for people. It has created a significant impact on every individual who listens to it. Over the years, the explicitness of the music lyric content has become more evident, creating havoc in the community. The majority of the student respondents in Cebu Technological University Danao Campus have stated their fondness for listening to lyrical music; thus, the researchers conducted a study to find out if the explicitness of the music lyrics affects their behavior, sexual attitude, personality, and emotion by assessing their perceived level of agreement of the effects of explicit music lyrics. This research study used a descriptive quantitative approach using a survey research method. The survey questionnaires were administered to 376 participants, which is the sample mean of the whole college to be logically assumed as the representative of the entire population. The data gathered were thoroughly analyzed through the use of weighted mean, percentage frequency, One-way Analysis of Variance, and Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. The study's findings show that respondents remember songs by their lyrics, understand the song's lyrical content, agree with the lyrics presented in their favorite song/s, and are exposed to explicit lyrics. Respondents also agree that explicit music lyrics affect personal factors such as behavior, sexual attitude, personality, and emotions. A person's perceived level of effect of explicit music lyrics is significantly correlated to age, status as a music lover, and level of interest in music and not the gender of a person. Through these findings, the researchers developed recommendations for the awareness of the potential effects explicit music lyrics might bring, and to lessen the increasing public sexualized and unfiltered music for its impact on consumers is of great importance.</p> Delfa G. Castilla, Jayson G. Bayogo, Keizyl Marie T. Gaco, Sofia P. Gonzales, John Paul Guinocor, Shanea Leigh J. Olivar, Elyn M. Pepito, Jole Mae C. Yuri, Jole Rose C. Yuri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Liability for Electronic Mark Holders Regarding Trade Commercialization in Electronic Business Transactions <p style="text-align: justify;">Issues related to unlawful acts by using a brand without the permission of another person (brand holder) and without a written agreement stating that it is permissible to use the mark to be marketed through social media or electronic business transactions and the brand holder can be held liable for all legal actions carried out by individuals as stipulated in act No.20/2016 concerning trademarks and act No.19/2016 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions. In connection with the type of research used, normative legal research, several approaches to the problem will be used in this study, as follows: The statutory approach, the conceptual approach, the philosophical approach, the comparative approach, and the case approach are all examples. These five approaches are carried out to solve problems that occur in connection with the nature of the mark, the legal ratio of cancellation of trademark rights, and the legal consequences of trademark cancellation for licensees so that in the future business actors, especially in Indonesia, can use their trademark rights as one of the supporting pillars of a successful business as he did. The results of this study obtained findings about the legal protection of brands that are given either to foreign or local brands, well-known or not well-known, only given to registered brands. For this reason, every brand owner is expected to register his trademark with the Director General of Intellectual Property Rights to obtain legal protection. A registered mark receives legal protection for a period of 10 (ten) years and is retroactive from the date of receipt of the application for the mark concerned. At the request of the trademark owner, the protection period for a registered mark can be extended each time for the same period. Legal protection based on the first-to-file principle system is given to registered trademark rights holders who have good faith, and are preventive or repressive in nature. Preventive legal protection is carried out through trademark registration, and repressive legal protection is provided in the event of a trademark violation through civil lawsuits or criminal charges by reducing the possibility of alternative settlements out of court.</p> Khoirul Anwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:06:40 +0000 Trafficking in Tech Crimes Against the Study of Vikology at This Time <p style="text-align: justify;">Human trafficking predators recruit teens as potential victims through online social media where this research is normative yuridis research. Hokum contributions to the future that will come. It is also normative, or empirical, because it relates to science-related study of victims (victimology). Structured modus operandi can also be done online through many online media, such as wa, michat, tweeting, job openings, Instagram, etc., so that the modus operandi performed by the perpetrators often fluctuates according to black market needs. This item law had a rule of jurisdiction that applied to each person who performed the legal act as prescribed in the law. The assurance of protection of the law used by informatics technology as the victim of the cybercrime crime, which means through our consciousness we have made peace and social welfare the goal of protecting the law against the victim and criminal penalties of the cybercrime. So it should be given to victims of criminal trafficking.</p> Zain Arfin Utama, R.B. Sularto ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Buying and Selling Land in Production Forest Areas in the Tampo Sub-District, Napabalano Sub-District, and Muna District <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to find out the legal protection for land buyers of well-intentioned production forest areas in Tampo Village napabalano district of Muna regency that is done under the hands and to find out the legal efforts that can be done by buyers against land sellers of production forest areas in Tampo Village Napabalano District Muna Regency. This type of research is Empirical research. In this study using secondary data and primary data Data collection techniques in empirical legal research there are 3 (three) techniques used, either individually or separately or used together at the same time in order to get conclusions, the research location is located in the Kelurahan Tampo Napabalano District, Muna Regency and used descriptive qualitative analysis. The results showed that: (1) Legal protection of good faith land buyers harmed by the seller of regional land is to compensate for losses experienced by land buyers in the form of refunds on purchase prices, return on results, costs incurred in connection with buyer lawsuits, changes in costs, losses, and interest and costs related to purchases. (2) The choice of resolving land buyer disputes with land sellers of production forest areas in Tampo Village is carried out of court through consensus deliberation with dispute resolution mediators, namely community leaders, indigenous leaders, and local governments from both the Head of Tampo Village and the Head of Napabalano District. In addition, litigation dispute resolution is the final means after alternative dispute resolution does not produce results, the Raha District Court is authorized to adjudicate because the dispute that occurred in Tampo Village napabalano district of Muna regency is the jurisdiction of the District Court (PN) Raha.</p> Wiradista Nugraha, Muh. Afif Mahfud ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Synergy Law Enforcement Apparatus in Emposing a Restorative Justice Model Towards Children <p style="text-align: justify;">A child dealing with a further law referred to as "child" was anyone who had reached the age of 12 (twelve), but not as yet as 18 (eighteen) years of a supposed crime. The study USES a qualitative descriptive analysis approach that can explain genuine law enforcement officials can collaborate to achieve a reality of Efficient coordination in children dealing with the law with various methods and procedures in the application of a restorative justice model. Construction system of criminal law enforcement with its own restorative justice model That has been implemented today. Synergy among the three key elements in the criminal law enforcement system both from the police, the prosecutor and the Supreme Court in this case the prosecutor police and judges already have a legal or legal standing in each case in its implementation. Although in terms of mechanisms, Classification of crimes, and ordinances that could be different. However, spirit and focus on criminal change into a discussion and/or mediation that involve parties of the perpetrator, victim, family of the perpetrator, or any other party involved in child abuse are subject to the law. As for the purpose of this mechanism, it is to create an alternative justice of criminal justice by focusing on restoration efforts and reintegration of public relations in them.</p> Reza Revansa Putra Negara, Joko Setiyono ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Legal Protection Against Consumers in Sales Transactions Buy It Electronically in Indonesia <p style="text-align: justify;">Legal protection of the consumer in the sale and purchase transactions electronically in Indonesia is very important for the economic development of society. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the Purchase Agreement How Electronics in Indonesia and How Legal Protection Against Consumer Purchase of Electronic Transactions in Indonesia. The research method is normative, data collection is done through literature. Results of the study are: First, the Sale and Purchase Agreement validity Electronics in Indonesia under Article 47 and Article 48 of Government Regulation No. 82 Year 2012 on the Implementation System and Electronic Transactions; Second, the legal protection for the people contained in article 46 of Law No. 11 Year 2008 on Information and Electronic Transactions and Article 62 of Law No. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection. Legal protection of the consumer in the sale and purchase transactions electronically in Indonesia are strictly regulated both in the criminal and civil.</p> Gibran Zainul Bahar Noor, Yunanto Yunanto ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Characteristics of the Agency Covenant in Legal Review Civil <p style="text-align: justify;">An agency agreement is an emergent and evolving one in society but not specifically arranged inside the file, which would be categorized as Innominaat covenant. The special arrangement of this agency has so far not existed, so When an issue arises, then it refers to a religious agreement made by the parties. When things were not specifically regulated in the covenant They were enforced Common rules concerning the giving of power as outlined in the civil code. This agency agreement has about the same characteristics as the comical agreement between Commissioner and committee. So the rules in KUHD regarding commission agreements are also Applicable in the agency agreement is not specifically in the covenant the agency of the party.</p> Anisyah Rani, Budi Santoso ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000