International Journal of Social Science Research and Review <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management and&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;History</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> en-US <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (<br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><img src="//" alt="Creative Commons License"></a> <br><br></p> (Thomas Campbell) (IJSSRR Technical Support) Mon, 04 Sep 2023 23:37:14 +0000 OJS 60 Optimizing the Role of District Governments to Realize Employment Social Security for Informal Workers in Palm Oil Plantations <p>Protection social or guarantee social Still become issue most important to world citizens. Indonesian, as members of the United Nations and the ILO, as well as fulfilling the mandate state constitution, continues to make an effort to develop and implement assurance programs comprehensive social. As to the study of the goals, this is to know the effort government of Musi Banyuasin district in the Framework to realize social employment, specifically worker informal. The method used is research juridical empirical. The result can be concluded that to optimize the role government of Musi Banyuasin Regency in the implementation of insurance social to power informal work on plantations of coconut palm oil, the company consulted with stakeholders’ interests between liberation land and implementing Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC).</p> Sumarjono Saragih, Sri Suatmiati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 19:03:04 +0000 The Impact of Medical Malpractice on the Patient’s Rights in the Context of South Africa <p style="text-align: justify;">The vast majority of accidents that take place in clinical settings are the direct consequence of unavoidable mistakes made by individuals operating within the confines of dysfunctional institutions. An increase in patient safety is the result of healthcare professionals' efforts to encourage blameless reporting and organisational learning. The fault-based civil liability law that inhibits more open discussion between physicians and patients about medical conditions is in opposition with this because of the aforementioned reason. When there is no universally accepted definition of the phrase medical error, litigation and, as a consequence, providing fast and sufficient financial compensation to patients may be rendered more difficult. In this aspect, the performance of no-fault systems is much superior. A dual-track liability system for medical malpractice may be the only option that may sufficiently safeguard patient rights. Despite the fact that it is complicated to create and difficult to administer, this system may be the only one. The objective of the study was to investigate the ways in which patients' legal rights might be affected by substandard medical treatment. In this study, a qualitative research approach was adopted, and primary and secondary sources of information were consulted.&nbsp; The most significant conclusions from this study related to the significance of patients' rights being affected by medical malpractice. Patients are the ones who end up being victims of such practises, thus it makes sense that patients would be affected by such practises. It is for this reason that a high-quality health care system is desired, since it will both extend and improve the rights of patients.</p> Khensanni Richard Chauke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness of Participatory Governance in Budgetary Monitoring and Evaluation in an Information Age: A Case of Fetakgomo-Tubatse Local Municipality <p style="text-align: justify;">Deepening participatory governance in budgetary monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensuring that local residents' rights to meaningful engagement in municipal governance are realised. It symbolises a paradigm shift in the relationship between municipalities and local residents, particularly in terms of promoting transparency and accountability in the use of municipal financial resources to achieve positive service delivery outcomes. However, proffering opportunities for residents to meaningfully engage in budgetary monitoring and evaluation processes is often met with mixed reactions within municipalities’ governance structures. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of participatory governance in budgetary monitoring and evaluation in the information age in the case of Fetakgomo-Tubatse local municipality. The objectives were to assess participants' understanding of the importance of participatory governance implementation in budgetary monitoring and evaluation, the scope and purpose of the implementation process, associated benefits and barriers, the efficacy of information dissemination and accessibility relating to the outcomes and impact of the process, and the degree of ICTs use towards enhancing timely dissemination and accessibility of the information. The study used a mixed method case study research design. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire were used to collect primary research data from a purposive and snowball sample of municipal officials (N=8) and ward committee members (N=10). The data was analysed using a seven-stage mixed method data analysis framework developed by Onwuegbuzie and Teddlie (2003). The paper provides the main findings that led to the conclusion that participatory governance in budgetary monitoring and evaluation is implemented ineffectively in the Fetakgomo-Tubatse local municipality; recommendations on how to strengthen its effectiveness and avenues for future research are provided.</p> E. Zwane, Mamabolo M. N ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Position of the Report on the Accountability of Regional Heads to the Regional People's Representative Council According to Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 23 of 2014 Concerning Regional Government <p style="text-align: justify;">Regional heads carry out the implementation of regional government. Regional people's Representative Counsil (DPRD) and Regional Heads have an equal position. In contrast, on the other hand, the DPRD is also a regional legislative institutions; this has been limitedly regulated in the Law of Republic Indonesia number 23 of 2014 concerning Regional Government. Regional head submits a statement of accountability report (LKPJ) to the DPRD at the end of each fiscal year and the end of term of office.&nbsp; The problem is how the report of Accountability Information (LKPJ) of Regional heads to the DPRD in the implementation of regional government according to Republic Indonesia Law Number 23 of 2014 concerning Regional government. normative research method is used in this paper. the result of this study is that the Regional Head conveys the LKPJ of the head of DPRD in the implementation of local government, both decentralization government affairs, and assistance duties at the end of ech fiscal year and at the end of the regional head term of office, there are no juridical consequences for the rejection or non acceptance of the Regional Head LKPF to DPRD.</p> Septiana Septiana, Khalisah Hayatuddin, M. Hum ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 19:51:26 +0000 Can School Principals Manage Recruitment and Retention of Maths and Science Teachers in Rural Secondary Schools? A Case Study in the Vhembe District, South Africa <p style="text-align: justify;">Mathematics and science subjects are critical subjects in high schools across South Africa. This study explored how principals managed the recruitment of scarce skills subjects’ teachers, based on demand and supply in Vhembe District. Myriad studies assert that Mathematics and science teachers are in short supply across South African rural schools, which creates a concern for the education system. This problem is prominent in rural Vhembe District, Limpopo. This study examined how rural secondary schools in the Mutale area recruited and retained permanent mathematics and science teachers. An interpretive paradigm was employed to understand the phenomenon under study. This study used a face-to-face qualitative methodology, where targeted principals, teachers, heads of departments, and circuit and district managers were interviewed. Participants were selected via purposive and simple random sampling for the one-on-one structured interviews. All the interviews were audio-recorded with the permission of the 10 participants and were thematically analysed. Various crucial factors have an impact on principals' ability to control the supply and demand of subjects with important, rare skills. Environmental and societal variables participate in the recruitment and retention of rural schools’ struggle to hire and retain maths and science teachers. Findings further revealed that these teachers need incentives to be employed and retained in rural schools. The study, therefore, recommends that teacher training programmes be supported with adequate bursaries or funding for pre-service teachers, while Maths and science teachers should be well remunerated to attract and retain them in rural schools.</p> Matodzi Grace Muremela, Azwidohwi Phillip Kutame, Ingrid Sibongile Kapueja, Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of the Central Bengkulu Police Secretariat in Investigating Corruption of Local Original Income from the Levy of Foreign Workers at the Central Bengkulu Manpower and Transmigration Office <p style="text-align: justify;">Thus, corruption-related problems can be overcome through social, economic, and cultural improvements. Likewise, technological advances have increased demand for conjectures goods, forcing him to deviate from his duty, which is to take state money unlawfully. Investigations into alleged criminal acts of corruption in the Regional Original Revenue (PAD) retribution of Foreign Workers (FOREIGN WORKERS) at the Manpower and Transmigration Office of Central Bengkulu are continuing. Most recently, the Central Bengkulu Police Secretariat will immediately coordinate with the Financial and Development Supervisory Agency (BPKP). The research method used is an empirical juridical research method, which is a study in addition to looking at positive legal aspects and their application or practice in the field. The role of the Central Bengkulu Police Secretariat in the investigation and investigation of the Criminal Act of Corruption of Local Original Revenue from the Foreign Worker Levy at the Central Bengkulu Manpower and Transmigration Office has examined witnesses and brought in expert witnesses such as expert witnesses in Criminal Law, expert witnesses from the Ministry of Finance, Auditors of the Audit Agency, and others. From the examination of witnesses, overall, the information obtained further strengthens the allegations of corruption in the Foreign Workers Retribution Area in Central Bengkulu, and the Investigator has determined three suspects. The results of the investigation and investigation have been declared P-21 and have been forwarded to the Court. The obstacles faced by the Central Bengkulu Police Secretariat in investigating and investigating the Criminal Act of Corruption of Local Original Revenue from the Foreign Worker Levy at the Central Bengkulu Manpower and Transmigration Office are divided into two (two): technically and non-technically.</p> Imam Falucky, Erli Salia, Khalisah Khalisah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 20:12:14 +0000 Women Representation in the Military: The Case of the South African National Defence Force, Limpopo Province <p style="text-align: justify;">Promoting gender equality and women empowerment is a long standing item on the development agenda nationally and internationally. It is also item number five of the 2030 millennium development goals; gender equality, ending all discrimination against women and girls is not only a basic right but a human right. Research has proven that empowering women and girls helps economic growth and development. Empowering women is necessary for women’s enhancement in society and the workplace, the military is no exception. This paper argues on the gender mainstreaming policies in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) and whether they are adequately implemented to ensure equal representation of women in all military ranks including combat. The researchers used Liberal Feminist Theory (LFT), which advocates for women’s right to be seen and acknowledged as human rights. The researchers employed a feminist qualitative research methodology and exploratory design. Snowballing sampling technique was used to select participants in the SANDF military air-force base in Hoedspruit, Limpopo and saturation was reached after the fifteenth participant for in-depth interviews. Data was analysed using Thematic Analysis (TA). Findings in the study revealed that women in the military are of the view that the military is making strides in ensuring an equal representation between men and women, however women view themselves as less represented than their male counterparts, regardless of the policies put in place. Results also revealed that that the lack of representation of women in the military is due to the SANDF not being meant for women. The paper therefore concludes that women are not equally represented to their male counterparts in the military and that there is need for improvement towards this in senior and management positions within the SANDF. The study recommends that the SANDF as a government institution could also create a sense of urgency to all the units in the quest to ensure equal representation of women. Creating a sense of urgency not only will ensure that more women can be part of the military, but will also create an awareness of the necessity for women to join the army.</p> Knightingale Lulu Mmakola, Sello Levy Sithole ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Keeping Up with the English Proficiency Test: the Vioce of Adult Women Test Takers <p style="text-align: justify;">A lot of studies reported that female learners' capabilityin mastering second language is better than that in male learners (Lasekan, 2018), and female students tend to be more successful than male students (Hamsinah, 2017). Adult female test-takers experience bigger challenges in dealing with EPT since they are usually multi-roles women i.e. working women, students, wives, and even mothers with babies. The objectives of the study were to analyze the voices of adult women test-takers on the challenges in dealing with English proficiency test related to the most difficult skill that they have to take and how they cope their problems. The study applied mixed method study with descriptive quantitative and phenomenology approach. The data were taken through questionaire and structured interview for 77 respondents of the study. Based on the result of the data analysis on 77 respondents, the questionaire data show that the most difficult part of EPT was listening (58.4%). The respondents provided many strategies for raising their EPT scores. The most popular method of learning EPT was autonomous learning (50.6%), which was followed by taking a course, studying with friends, and not trying to improve EPT at all. These methods received 35.1%, 7.8%, and 6.5 of the total votes, respectively.&nbsp;</p> Setya Putri Rahayu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 20:32:57 +0000 Strategic Partnerships and Organizational Performance of Broadcasters in Kenya <p style="text-align: justify;">The performance of broadcasters has struggled with the economic implications of the digital disruption, the mobile telephony and the advent of social media compelling managers to rethink and recalibrate their strategies while radio and television stations have shut down their operations in the recent times in Kenya. The overall objective of the study was to determine the influence of strategic partnerships on the organizational performance of broadcasters in Kenya. The study was underpinned by the Igor Ansoff’s theory and resource based view theory. A correlation and descriptive research design was adopted. The target population comprised of 239 radio and TV station mangers drawn from 167 radio and 72 television stations. Simple random sampling was applied. The sample size of the study was 179 respondents. Results revealed a strong significant relationship between strategic partnerships and operational performance (r=0.667; P&lt;0.000). Study concludes: strategic partnership has got a significant influence on organizational performance.</p> Wangila Brian Mukhongo, Fred Gichana Atandi, Michael Washika Okonda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Exploration of Local Wisdom: Rites of Passage in Malay Culture in Riau and Palembang <p style="text-align: justify;">The development of rites of passage in the Malay Culture in Riau and Palembang Indonesian has decreased in implementation stemming from the pros and cons of its importance. Exploration of local wisdom includes; Human interaction with supernatural, Oriented to moral strengthening, Fostering suggestions in religious, social, and economic aspects, Strengthening existence as a human being, Internalisation of Islamic values in culture, and there is a process of socialisation and enculturation. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the rites of passage in Riau and Palembang by exploring the values of local wisdom. The rite of passage is considered sacred and if it is not celebrated, it is feared that disaster will occur. The implementation of the Transitional Ritual is packed with Islamic nuances. This research uses a qualitative literature method with data sources from observations, interviews and literature reviews in Riau and Palembang. Through the qualitative method, it is known that the Ritual of Transition is a phase of human life journey. The transition from one phase to the next is celebrated with religious rituals and then becomes the tradition of the Malay people in Riau and Palembang. The transition phase with rituals is local wisdom as an implementation of the substance of religion with culture without any conflict and the real reality of the face of Malay Islam. Two Malay communities that interact local wisdom in birth, marriage and death, in reality as a form of prayer and thanksgiving to the Almighty. The journey of human life is a transition from one phase to the next celebrated with religious rituals and considered sacred.</p> Rina Rehayati, M. Ridwan Hasbi, Martius Martius ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 22:27:15 +0000 Spatial Distribution of Burglary at Residential Premises in the Newlands East Policing Precint <p style="text-align: justify;">It is in the best interest of community members and policy makers to comprehend not only which crime prevention methods are most effective, but also where they are appropriate to apply. This study aimed at exploring the spatial distribution of burglary at residential premises in the Newlands East policing precinct. This was deemed necessary as residential burglary had been reported as the highest property-related crime in the study area for the five-year period (2015-2019) preceding the study. To ensure that the aim of this study was achieved, a qualitative research approach was utilised which assisted the researcher to focus on the spatial assessment of burglary at residential premises in the Newlands East policing precinct. Data collection was achieved by means of Focus Group Discussions and semi-structured interviews that involved a total of thirty-seven participants comprising of South African Police Service members, Community Policing Forum representatives, local Ward councillors, and ordinary community members. A set of pre-determined questions was used that enabled the researcher to explore themes and elicit responses that focused on achieving the objectives of the study. The findings of the study indicated that burglaries in the study area occurred spatially. This means that burglaries are highly concentrated at specific residential premises, particularly in the Newlands West area. The findings also indicated that various factors at local community level were instrumental in instigating this crime, and it is thus argued that SAPS and CPF members need to work collaboratively to develop strategies to curb the spatial distribution of burglaries in the study area.&nbsp; These findings suggest that a more concerted effort is required to forge collaboration among the government, the SAPS, and the community to effectively curb burglaries at residential premises. New evidence also highlights the role of construction/development companies as role-players in the fight against the scourge of residential burglaries.</p> Nokukhanya Neptune Mbonambi, Shanta Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 22:39:11 +0000 Audit & Analysis of turnover of medical practitioners’ resignation from Mankwneg Academic hospital, Limpopo, South Africa <p><strong>Background:</strong> Shortages and staff turnover have been recognized as one of the big concerns for employer and patient care in the health-care sector worldwide. It has been observed that some of the health professionals particularly medical doctors are resigning from Mankweng academic hospital time to time and which is affecting the service delivery and training program. <strong>Purpose of the Research:</strong> Main aim of the study to figure out what factors influencing medical practitioner to quit Mankweng hospital.<strong> Methods: </strong>The study was a retrospective cross sectional descriptive quantitative design to analyse the profile of all Medical doctors, who quitted from Mankweng Academic hospital for 5-year period from January 2018 to December 2022. Categorical variables were described as proportions and frequency tables. &nbsp;<strong>Result:</strong> Total 74 medical practitioner resigned. Male 37 and female 37 from different departments. Reason of resigning: &nbsp;Lack of prospect advancement 19(25.7%), Relocation to other area 19(25.7%) and Promotion 14(19%), family reason 8(10.8%), work related stress &amp; poor working condition 5.4% each, further study 4% and other 4%. Suggestion for retention: Improve staff 24.3%, employee support 21.6%. <strong>Conclusions:&nbsp; </strong>Lack of prospect advancement (25.7%), Relocation to other area (25.7%) and Promotion (19%), are responsible for main reasons of resignation among all medical practitioners. Approximately 24% of resigned doctors suggested increasing the staff number.&nbsp; Increased staff would improve the working condition; reduce burnout, fatigue, stress and which would decrease the turnover of medical practitioners. It is paramount important to hire more medical specialist and retain them in order to get accreditation of relevant departments.</p> Mirza Mohamod Zahir Uddin Bhuiyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 22:55:50 +0000 Exploration of Challenges Faced by Peer Educators in the Implementation of Health Promotion Activities at the Institutions of Higher Learning <p style="text-align: justify;">Peer education programs encompass a variety of health-related topics; however,&nbsp;it is unclear what difficulties peer educators encounter when putting such health promotion initiatives into practice in institutions of higher learning. The objectives of this review are therefore to explore the challenges that peer educators face in the implementation of health promotion activities at the institutions of higher learning and to give recommendations on how to enhance the peer education program to better prepare peer educators for their role and to better prepare them for any upcoming obstacles. This qualitative study used a non-empirical research design, analysing primary research papers and grey literature using a systematic review technique. The study's time frame was limited to 2013-2023, and non-sequential preference adoption was taken into account. The conclusions of this study, which relied on the reviews of standard and fundamental research papers on this topic, were made credible by employing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and the Critical Appraisal Skill Programme. Peer education program at institutions of higher learning proved to have a positive impact on the health and well-being of students however the peer educators encounter some challenges when executing their duties such as little knowledge and training on some health topics, lack of interest on some health topics, lack of compensation and lack of support among others. Peer education, which is believed to be a useful technique in encouraging students to adopt healthy behaviours, is an interpersonal endeavour that is influenced by the environments, institutional backdrop, key individuals, and the participants' attitudes and aspirations.</p> Tiisetso Aubrey Chuene ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 23:01:05 +0000 Evaluation of Implementation of the Independent Curriculum at State Level Schools for Academic Year 2022/2023 in Belitung District, Bangka Belitung Islands Province <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to evaluate the implementation of the independent curriculum at state senior high schools for the 2022/2023 academic year in Belitung district, Bangka Belitung archipelago province. This study uses a descriptive qualitative research design. The evaluation model used for this study is the CIPP model. The population and sample in this study were taken from parties related to public high schools (SMA) that have implemented the implementation of the independent curriculum and related agencies related to the implementation of the independent curriculum, namely: The Bangka Belitung Islands Province Schools, Vice Principals for Curriculum, Teachers, Students, Parents and School Committees at Tanjungpandan 1 Public High School, Sijuk 1 Public High School, and Panggang 1 Public High School. The data collection techniques in this study were observation, documentation and interviews. Data analysis researchers used descriptive analytical research, namely research that intends to understand the phenomenon of what is experienced by research subjects, for example behavior, perception, motivation, action. The results of the research based on context evaluation are as follows: 90% with the "Very Good" category from three schools that implement the independent curriculum in Belitung district, based on the results of teachers' understanding of the independent curriculum, 77% of the data is obtained with the "Good" category, based on the results of interviews with researchers to respondents in this study regarding students' understanding of the independent curriculum were obtained by 77% in the "Good" category. In conclusion, it can be concluded that the implementation of the independent curriculum in public senior high schools in Belitung Regency has been going well, although seen from the aspect of implementation it is still not optimal and needs improvement. because there are many strategies offered by the government to implement the curriculum depending on the school that is implementing it.</p> Yulizar Yulizar, Student Student ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Barriers and Challenges Related to Cultural Diversity Management Within Schools in South Africa <p>Globalization, internationalization and technology have increased the movement of people from different cultural backgrounds around the world. The coexistence has created rapid cultural diversity challenges, forcing many democratic countries to review their labour laws, compelling organisations to adopt sound diversity management policies. Pre 1994 in South Africa, the workforce did not represent the diversity of the country. The end of apartheid created opportunities for culturally diverse workforces in most sectors of the economy. Schools are no exception to this change due to the diverse teacher and learner population as women and people from previously disadvantaged backgrounds are sharing the workspace. The School Management Team (SMT) led by the Principal, need to be properly equipped in terms of knowledge, skills and capacity to deal with increased cultural diversity for the achievement of organizational goals. This paper aims to identify barriers and challenges related to cultural diversity management within the schools in uMzinyathi District, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, South Africa. The research seeks to determine if schools in uMzinyathi district are utilizing cultural diversity management for the achievement of organisational goals. The paper was exploratory and descriptive in nature and adopted a qualitative approach. The focus was on the SMT of ten schools in the uMzinyathi District comprising the principal, vice-principal(s), and heads of departments, and senior teachers. Using purposive sampling, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face involving 36 SMT members. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Data were presented in tabular form. The study revealed that there are no work-related barriers due to the availability of teachers from diverse backgrounds under the uMzinyathi District in KZN. However, having no barriers and challenges does not mean that there is no conflict. Hence, the study recommends that the Department of Basic Education (DBE) introduces cultural exchange programmes and partnerships with other schools to share educational resources, sports development and leadership development.</p> Nkosana Sibanda, Brian Kwazi Majola ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 23:35:14 +0000 Entrepreneurial Mindset as a Facilitator and Barrier to Entrepreneurship Development: The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Culture <p style="text-align: justify;">Entrepreneurship has been globally identified as an important factor for economic development. The importance of entrepreneurship has encouraged policymakers to invest in entrepreneurship development, and entrepreneurial mindset and culture are being assumed as important factors to consider in developing entrepreneurship success and growth. This study focused on the role of entrepreneurial mindset and culture on the entrepreneurship success or failure in South Africa. The objective of this study was to understand whether entrepreneurship culture can enhance entrepreneurial mindset and whether both entrepreneurial mindset and culture enhance entrepreneurship success and development. A qualitative research approach was used for this study, where a systematic literature review was followed as the method of review. Various online databases and peer-reviewed journal articles were used in analysing appropriate and relevant literature. The findings revealed that culture and mindset have a robust contribution towards entrepreneurship development and success. The findings further revealed that entrepreneurship culture makes an important contribution to the development of an entrepreneurial mindset, which encourages entrepreneurial intentions and venture success. This study indicates that the creation of an entrepreneurial mindset that drives creativity and innovation, resulting in new ventures being created and entrepreneurship culture being cemented, is very important in encouraging entrepreneurship growth and success.</p> Sbonelo Gift Ndlovu, Thobile Nokuthula Radebe, Njabulo Collin Xulu, Victor H Mlambo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 05 Sep 2023 20:43:07 +0000 The Impact of Misinformation and Fake News on Climate Change Perception and Response: A Comprehensive Review <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper examines the impact of fake news and misinformation on human behaviour in response to climate change through adaptation and mitigation. Even though there is broad scientific consensus regarding climate change, the public has become divided over important issues such as whether humans drive global warming. Communication tactics rarely lessen polarisation and target of the problem: politically motivated misinformation spread through social and traditional media. Several implications are drawn from the available literature on explaining climate change and spreading awareness. This is a literature review paper that relied on material that is publicly available. People's acceptance of science can be increased by educating them about climate change, especially by explaining why it occurs, how to mitigate the impacts and adaptation thereof. The greatest way to combat climate change fake news and misinformation is to inoculate against it beforehand, although debunking strategies can also be effective.</p> Maijane Martha Mashamaite ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 Sep 2023 23:01:07 +0000 The Lack of Legal Definition of Different Types of Property Rights in Kosovo <p style="text-align: justify;">The legal concepts from the past of the socialists of Kosovo must be removed and their rights and responsibilities must be clearly defined by law, in order to stand on the basis of a market economy that will support law. The duration of the right is regulated with all parties, unless it is something else with special lectures, but the duration cannot exceed ninety (99) years. The methods used in these scientific works are: comparative and analytical. These methods are used to see the differences and methods used between the Republic of Kosovo and other foreign states.</p> Verona Maloku ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Case Study of Biomass Stove: Effects of Product Quality and Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction <p style="text-align: justify;">Considering the intense competition, the customer satisfaction factor is a serious concern. Customer satisfaction can be a reference for improving the quality of goods to be sold and a tool for self-correction in improving the quality of a good service. Several factors that influence customer satisfaction (Y) in this study included product quality (X1) and service quality (X2). This study aimed to examine the effect of product quality and service quality on customer satisfaction of PT Putralink Makmur Jaya's biomass stoves. The customer satisfaction factor was influenced by many things. Several factors that influence customer satisfaction were product quality and service quality. The present study involved 150 clients. The samples were clients who used a biomass stove. The sample collection was based on a purposive sampling technique in which the research applied a quantitative research approach. Then, the questionnaire method was used by providing a list of questions directly to the respondent. The data analysis was performed using Multiple Regression Analysis through the SPSS version 22.0 program. The results of this study indicated that product quality and service quality have a positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction of PT Putralink Makmur Jaya biomass stove users.</p> Alvin Gunawan, Bernadetta Dwi Suatmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Sep 2023 20:46:34 +0000 Economic Push Factors of African-Western Migration as Depicted in Selected African Novels <p style="text-align: justify;">This article looks at issues of the economy in African countries, that push Africans to move to Western countries, in search of greener pastures, as these issues are demonstrated in African novels. The novels to be considered for this discourse are Dirie and Miller’s Desert Flower, Bulawayo’s We Need New Names and Mungoshi’s Waiting for The Rain. While the discussion is on economic issues pushing Africans to Western countries, when and where necessary, allusion will be made to emigration to other countries, even within Africa as well. The subheadings of this research are introduction, unemployment, hunger and starvation, and conclusion. The concepts of push factors, economy and African-Western migration are defined as part of the introductory section of this discourse.</p> Zilibele Mtumane, Precious Christine Gwambiwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Imposition of Administrative Sanctions on Government Officials Who Do Not Implement Decision of the State Administrative Court <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to analyze and determine the nature of the imposition of administrative sanctions on government officials who do not implement the decisions of the State Administrative Court. As well as exploring and finding the concept of imposing administrative sanctions on government officials who do not carry out decisions of the State Administrative Court. This type of normative research examines document studies using various legal materials such as laws and regulations, legal theory, legal principles, legal systematics, research on legal synchronization, legal history, court decisions, and comparative analysis of law. The problem approaches used in this study are the statutory approach, the conceptual approach, the case approach, the philosophical approach, and the comparative approach. The results of this study obtained the following conclusions: (1). The nature of the imposition of administrative sanctions on government officials who do not implement the decisions of the State Administrative Court can be seen from 3 (three) aspects, namely the aspects of ontology, epistemology, and axiology. (2). The concept or model of imposing administrative sanctions on government officials who do not implement the decisions of the State Administrative Court in a futuristic manner and as a form of legal protection for the plaintiff, it is necessary to have a clear basis or legal basis for the State Administrative Court to include administrative sanctions in the decision. Whereas Furthermore, if the official concerned still does not want to carry out the court's decision, then he will be subject to administrative sanctions in the form of temporary dismissal for 5 (five) years without obtaining financial rights and office rights and publication in the mass media for 1 (one) month in a row, except for government officials whose working period is less than five years, the temporary dismissal is adjusted to the remaining active period.</p> Karmal Maksudi, Selamet Suhartono, Hufron Hufron ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Sep 2023 19:05:53 +0000 Road Infrastructure Resilience and SMEs Sales Performance in Tanzania: Evidence from the Government Departments Shift to Dodoma Region <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">This study focuses on the effect of road transport infrastructure in Dodoma city on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) sales performance. Specific attention was to determine how several factors, such as market and road accessibility, ways of transportation, time management, and so forth, affect sales performance (measured by sales trend) of SMEs after Government Departments Shift to Dodoma Region. The data from Using the World Bank firm resilience and enterprise survey was employed to analyze 89 firms by using DiD technique to capture the outcome before and after the shift. The main variables, such as market accessibility, access roads to customers, improved transportation, and time management, positively affect sales performance. The results mean that the infrastructure constructed after the Government shift dramatically increases the sales volume. The other variables (ways of transporting goods, shifting to transport mode, transport cost, and expensive transport model) indicate the adverse effect.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">In addition, the study showed robust checks on the OLS model and profit as another measure of firm performance. The results indicate a similar effect to the baseline results, with a slight increase when the control variables are inserted into the model. The study concludes that transport infrastructure improved or constructed after the Government shift to Dodoma city boosted the sales and profit of SMEs. The paper recommends that the Government should continue improving road networks. Also, financial skills should be offered to SMEs. Through acquired skills, they can make knowledgeable investment decisions and develop entrepreneurial skills that will allow them to identify and adventure the available commercial opportunities. </span></p> Frank Arbogast Mwombeki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Sep 2023 11:46:49 +0000 Challenges Experienced with Water Services Delivery in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: A Case Study of a Rural Community in Vhembe District Municipality <p>Study purpose: One of the challenges for many local municipalities is the provision of basic water services to all South Africans. The purpose of this study was to explore water service delivery in the Mukondeni community in Limpopo Province. Materials and methods: Semi-structured interview questions were posed to communities and employees in a municipality in Limpopo Province to achieve this goal. The main study focus was on the responses of community members and local authorities in charge of water service delivery, and the nature of resources in the water supply. Results, Discussion and Conclusion: The findings show that community members are experiencing challenges with water service delivery, and workers in the water services department are dissatisfied with the current system. Direct involvement, coordination, and cooperation, as well as the development of a culture of a culture of empowering the local communities, should result in improved water service delivery to the community and Musina Local Municipality in general. The study suggests that water efficiency and effectiveness campaigns be launched to help alleviate and improve the current perilous situation.</p> Sejabaledi Agnes Rankoana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Sep 2023 11:59:13 +0000 Prevalence and Factors Affecting the Intention of Women to Limit Childbearing in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study <p>Women’s intention to limit childbearing is a leading issue in developing countries like Bangladesh. This study tries to identify which factors are associated with limiting childbearing intention among reproductive-aged women in Bangladesh. We used the most recent Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18 data to analyze this study. The outcome variable was women’s intention to limit childbearing. Individual, household and community-level factors were used as the explanatory variables. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the background characteristics of the study. To check the association between the outcome variable and explanatory variable, we used two-level logistic regression model. The result of this study showed that women’s age, education, wealth index, and use of modern methods had significantly associated with women’s intention to limit childbearing. According to the two-level logistic regression model, the likelihood of women’s intention to limit childbearing was found to be increased with the increased age of respondents. Higher-educated women were 83% lower likelihood of limiting childbearing compared to illiterate women. Women who came from middle wealth index had a 40% lower likelihood to limit childbearing than the poorest women. Women who had used modern methods were 1.52 times more to limit childbearing than women who had not used modern methods. So, improving access to women’s age, wealth index, education and contraceptive use will pay more attention to achieving desired fertility rate.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Md. Mamunur Rashid, Tapan Kumar Roy, Mosiur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000